INSTALL - Installation procedure for NetBSD/atari


About this Document

This document describes the installation procedure for NetBSD1.4.1 on the atari platform. It is available in four different formats titled INSTALL.ext, where ext is one of .ps, .html, .more, or .txt.


Standard internet HTML.

The enhanced text format used on Unix-like systems by the more(1) and less(1) pager utility programs. This is the format in which the on-line man pages are generally presented.

Plain old ASCII.

You are reading the HTML version.

What is NetBSD?

The NetBSD Operating System is a fully functional Open Source UN*X-like operating system derived from the Berkeley Networking Release 2 (Net/2), 4.4BSD-Lite, and 4.4BSD-Lite2 sources. NetBSD runs on twenty different system architectures featuring eight distinct families of CPUs, and is being ported to more. The NetBSD1.4.1 release contains complete binary releases for fourteen different machine types. (The six remaining are not fully supported at this time and are thus not part of the binary distribution. For information on them, please see the NetBSD web site at

NetBSD is a completely integrated system. In addition to its highly portable, high performance kernel, NetBSD features a complete set of user utilities, compilers for several languages, The X Window System, and numerous other tools, all accompanied by full source code.

NetBSD is a creation of the members of the Internet community. Without the unique cooperation and coordination the net makes possible, it's likely that NetBSD wouldn't exist.

Changes Since The Last Release

The NetBSD1.4.1 release is a substantial improvement over its predecessors. We have provided numerous significant functional enhancements, including support for many new devices, integration of hundreds of bug fixes, new and updated kernel subsystems, and many userland enhancements. The results of these improvements is a stable operating system fit for production use that rivals most commercially available systems.

It is impossible to completely summarize the nearly two years of development that went into the NetBSD1.4.1 release. Some highlights include:

  • Substantial improvements in the TCP/IP implementation, including numerous performance enhancements and bug fixes by Jason Thorpe and others.

  • A new, high efficiency kernel memory pool allocator by Paul Kranenburg. This has been integrated into most kernel subsystems.

  • A new, totally rewritten virtual memory subsystem, UVM, created by Chuck Cranor, which is substantially cleaner and better performing than the old Mach derived VM subsystem.

  • Improved POSIX and XPG standards compliance.

  • Completion of the integration of all remaining 4.4BSD Lite-2 kernel improvements and bug fixes that had not been previously integrated. (Integration of all userland components was completed before NetBSD1.3)

  • Several new ports, including macppc, bebox, sparc64, next68k, and others, have been integrated into the source tree.

  • The system compilers have been upgraded to egcs 1.1.1, and the system compiler toolchain now (mostly) uses the latest versions of GNU binutils instead of the obsolete versions left over from 4.4BSD Lite.

  • Everyone's favorite ftp(1) client has been improved even further. See the man page for details.

  • A new architecture independent console driver, wscons(4), has been integrated into many ports.

  • Numerous improvements have been made to the audio subsystem support, including support for MIDI device drivers.

  • Linux compatibility support has been improved.

  • A number of scheduler enhancements have yielded dramatic improvements in interactive performance and better control of background tasks.

  • Several network tunneling protocols, including GRE and IP in IP, have been implemented.

  • Kernel support for the CODA distributed file system has been added.

  • Manuel Bouyer completed major changes to the IDE support. It is now architecture independent. Major changes have been made to the IDE code for better error handling, improved ATAPI support, 32 bit data I/O support and bus-master DMA support on PCI IDE controllers.

  • Lennart Augustsson has added full USB support, permitting the use of a wide variety of Universal Serial Bus peripherals. The drivers should easily port to any future platforms that support the PCI bus. See usb(4) for an overview.

  • RAIDframe, version 1.1, from the Parallel Data Laboratory at Carnegie Mellon University, has been integrated. Supports RAID levels 0, 1, 4, 5, and more.

  • Luke Mewburn added nsswitch.conf(5) functionality to the system to specify the search order for system databases.

  • syslogd(8) now supports listening on multiple sockets, to make the chrooting of servers easier.

  • Most third party packages have been updated to the latest stable release.

As has been noted, there have also been innumerable bug fixes.

Kernel interfaces have continued to be refined, and more subsystems and device drivers are shared among the different ports. You can look for this trend to continue.

The Atari release stepped in in March 1995. The first official release was NetBSD1.1. About a year later, NetBSD1.2 was released for the Atari. This release fixed a large number of bugs and made the Atari-port a stable member of the NetBSD family. The saga continued with the NetBSD1.3 release. In this release, support was added for the Medusa Hades, Riebl ethernet and Falcon IDE support. And now, yet another release is emerging!

New on the NetBSD1.4 release (atari specific):

  • Crazy Dots VME et4000 graphics adapter

  • Circad Leonardo 24-bit VME graphics adapter

  • VME BVME410 ethernet

  • ATAPI support on IDE

  • Hades PCI-devices

    - Adaptec 2940U

  • Hades ISA-devices

    - Teles 16.3 card (Requires isdn4bsd package).

The Future of NetBSD

The NetBSD Foundation has been incorporated as a non-profit organization. Its purpose is to encourage, foster and promote the free exchange of computer software, namely the NetBSD Operating System. The foundation will allow for many things to be handled more smoothly than could be done with our previous informal organization. In particular, it provides the framework to deal with other parties that wish to become involved in the NetBSD Project.

The NetBSD Foundation will help improve the quality of NetBSD by:

  • providing better organization to keep track of development efforts, including co-ordination with groups working in related fields.

  • providing a framework to receive donations of goods and services and to own the resources necessary to run the NetBSD Project.

  • providing a better position from which to undertake promotional activities.

  • periodically organizing workshops for developers and other interested people to discuss ongoing work.

We intend to begin narrowing the time delay between releases. Our ambition is to provide a full release every six to eight months.

We hope to support even more hardware in the future, and we have a rather large number of other ideas about what can be done to improve NetBSD.

We intend to continue our current practice of making the NetBSD-current development source available on a daily basis. In addition, we intend to provide Anonymous CVS access to the NetBSD source tree in the near future, so that anyone on the internet can examine the full NetBSD source code repository.

We intend to integrate free, positive changes from whatever sources submit them, providing that they are well thought-out and increase the usability of the system.

Above all, we hope to create a stable and accessible system, and to be responsive to the needs and desires of NetBSD users, because it is for and because of them that NetBSD exists.

Sources of NetBSD

NetBSD Mirror Site List
The following sites mirror NetBSD as of April 03, 1999.

If you wish to become a distribution site for NetBSD, contact

FTP mirrors

RMIT University, Melbourne
University of Queensland, Brisbane

University of Technology, Vienna

Cidade Universitaria

Aalborg University

The Finnish University and Research Network, Espoo

Paris University

University of Trier
University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
University of Regensburg

Internet Research Institute Inc., Tokyo
Electrotechnical Laboratory
Dream Train Internet Inc., Tokyo
Nagoya University of Commerce and Business
Tohoku University, Sendai

University of Amsterdam

Bergen IT Consult AS
Norwegian University of Science and Technology

Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chernogolovka

Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
Swedish University NETwork, Uppsala

Domino, London

Silicon Valley, California
University of Minnesota
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Iowa State University

AFS mirrors

Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
AFS path: /afs/

Iowa State University
AFS path: /afs/

NFS mirrors

Instructions: mount -o ro /mnt

SUP mirrors

RMIT University, Melbourne

Paris University
Instructions: Similar to

University of Trier

Internet Research Institute Inc., Tokyo

Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Instructions: See /usr/src/share/examples/supfiles/

Domino, London
Instructions: See

Silicon Valley, California
Instructions: See
University of Minnesota
Instructions: hostbase=/ftp/ftp/packages/NetBSD, collections are the same as on sup.NetBSD.ORG

WWW mirrors

RMIT University, Melbourne

University of Technology, Vienna

Global Wire Oy, Lappeenranta

Paris University


Internet Research Institute Inc., Tokyo

Bergen IT Consult AS

Western Washington State University
New York

NetBSD 1.4.1 Release Contents

The root directory of the NetBSD1.4.1 release is organized as follows:


Known bugs list (somewhat incomplete and out of date).

Changes since earlier NetBSD releases.

Last minute changes.

A list of sites that mirror the NetBSD1.4.1 distribution.

README describing the distribution's contents.

NetBSD's todo list (also somewhat incomplete and out of date).

Post-release source code patches.

Source distribution sets; see below.

In addition to the files and directories listed above, there is one directory per architecture, for each of the architectures for which NetBSD1.4.1 has a binary distribution. There are also 'README.export-control' files sprinkled liberally throughout the distribution tree, which point out that there are some portions of the distribution (i.e. the `domestic' portion) that may be subject to export regulations of the United States. It is your responsibility to determine whether or not it is legal for you to export these portions and to act accordingly.

The source distribution sets can be found in subdirectories of the "source" subdirectory of the distribution tree. They contain the complete sources to the system. The source distribution sets are as follows:

This set contains the "domestic" sources. These sources may be subject to United States export regulations.
421K   gzipped,   2M   uncompressed

This set contains the "gnu" sources, including the source for the compiler, assembler, groff, and the other GNU utilities in the binary distribution sets.
19M   gzipped,   84.2M   uncompressed

This set contains the sources to the NetBSD1.4.1 kernel, config(8), and dbsym(8).
13.5M   gzipped,   66.7M   uncompressed

This set contains the "share" sources, which include the sources for the man pages not associated with any particular program, the sources for the typesettable document set, the dictionaries, and more.
3M   gzipped,   11.9M   uncompressed

This set contains all of the NetBSD1.4.1 sources which are not mentioned above.
16.1M   gzipped,   73.6M   uncompressed

Most of the above source sets are located in the source/sets subdirectory of the distribution tree. The secrsrc.tgz set is contained in the source/security subdirectory. This set, which is available only to users in the United States and Canada, contains the sources normally found in /usr/src/domestic - primarily kerberos and other cryptographic security related software. (Remember, because of United States law, it may not be legal to distribute this set to locations outside of the United States and Canada.)

The source sets are distributed as compressed tar files. They may be unpacked into /usr/src with the command:
       cat set_name.tgz | gunzip | (cd /; tar xpf - )
The sets/Split/ and security/Split/ subdirectories contain split versions of the source sets for those users who need to load the source sets from floppy or otherwise need a split distribution. The split sets are are named "set_name.xx" where "set_name" is the distribution set name, and "xx" is the sequence number of the file, starting with "aa" for the first file in the distribution set, then "ab" for the next, and so on. All of these files except the last one of each set should be exactly 240,640 bytes long. (The last file is just long enough to contain the remainder of the data for that distribution set.)

The split distributions may be reassembled and extracted with cat as follows:
       cat set_name.?? | gunzip | (cd /; tar xpf - )

In each of the source distribution set directories, there is a file named CKSUMS which contains the checksums of the files in that directory, as generated by the cksum(1) utility. You can use cksum to check the integrity of the archives, if you suspect that one of the files is corrupt and have access to a cksum binary. Checksums based on other algorithms may also be present - see the release(7) man page for details.

NetBSD/atari Subdirectory Structure
The atari-specific portion of the NetBSD1.4.1 release is found in the atari subdirectory of the distribution: .../NetBSD-1.4.1/atari/
Installation notes; this file. The .more file contains underlined text using the more(1) conventions for indicating italic and bold display.
atari binary distribution sets; see below.
atari security distribution; see below.
Binary Distribution Sets
The NetBSD atari binary distribution sets contain the binaries which comprise the NetBSD1.4.1 release for the atari. There are eight binary distribution sets and the   security   distribution   set. The binary distribution sets can be found in the atari/binary/sets subdirectory of the NetBSD1.4.1 distribution tree, and are as follows:

The NetBSD1.4.1 atari base binary distribution. You must install this distribution set. It contains the base NetBSD utilities that are necessary for the system to run and be minimally functional. It includes shared library support, and excludes everything described below.
10.3M   gzipped,   29.0M   uncompressed

Things needed for compiling programs. This set includes the system include files (/usr/include) and the various system libraries (except the shared libraries, which are included as part of the base set). This set also includes the manual pages for all of the utilities it contains, as well as the system call and library manual pages.
8.1M   gzipped,   27.2M   uncompressed

This distribution set contains the system configuration files that reside in /etc and in several other places. This set must be installed if you are installing the system from scratch, but should not be used if you are upgrading. (If you are upgrading, it's recommended that you get a copy of this set and carefully upgrade your configuration files by hand.)
56K   gzipped,   330K   uncompressed

This set includes the games and their manual pages.
2.8M   gzipped,   7M   uncompressed

The NetBSD/atari 1.4.1 kernel binary. You should install the appropriate kernel for your system.
Approx.   500K   gzipped,   1M   uncompressed

This set includes all of the manual pages for the binaries and other software contained in the base set. Note that it does not include any of the manual pages that are included in the other sets.
4M   gzipped,   15.9M   uncompressed

This set includes the (rather large) system dictionaries, the typesettable document set, and other files from /usr/share.
2.2M   gzipped,   8.4M   uncompressed

This set includes NetBSD's text processing tools, including groff(1), all related programs, and their manual pages.
1.3M   gzipped,   4.5M   uncompressed

The atari security distribution set is named secr and can be found in the
subdirectory of the NetBSD1.4.1 distribution tree. It contains security-related binaries which depend on cryptographic source code. You do not need this distribution set to use encrypted passwords in your password file; the base distribution includes a crypt library which can perform only the one-way encryption function. The security distribution includes a version of the Kerberos IV network security system, and a Kerberized version of telnet(1) program. The secr distribution set can be found only on those sites which carry the complete NetBSD distribution and which can legally obtain it. Because of United States law, it may not be legal to distribute this set to locations outside of the United States and Canada.

NetBSD maintains its own set of sources for the X Window System in order to assure tight integration and compatibility. These sources are based on XFree86, and tightly track XFree86 releases. They are currently equivalent to XFree86 Binary sets for the X Window system are distributed with NetBSD. The sets are:

The basic files needed for a complete X client environment. This does not include the X servers.
2.5M   gzipped   7.9M   uncompressed

The extra libraries and include files needed to compile X source code.
1.6M   gzipped,   6.8M   uncompressed

Programs that were contributed to X.
179k   gzipped,   670k   uncompressed

Fonts needed by X.
5.7M   gzipped,   7.0M   uncompressed

The Xservers and some programs not shared with the other m68k ports. Please consult the X specific section in the atari FAQ as to which server you should use.
6.3M   gzipped,   15.7M   uncompressed

The atari binary distribution sets are distributed as gzipped tar files named with the extension .tgz, e.g. base.tgz.

The instructions given for extracting the source sets work equally well for the binary sets, but it is worth noting that if you use that method, the files are /-relative and therefore are extracted below the current directory. That is, if you want to extract the binaries into your system, i.e. replace the system binaries with them, you have to run the tar xfp command from /.

Additional kernels to those included in the distribution sets may be found in the atari/binary/kernel subdirectory of the NetBSD1.4.1 distribution tree. These kernels are generally named something like netbsd.BOOT.gz or some other suitable name. Please note that these kernels are simply gzipped and are not in tar archives.

There are three atari floppy images to be found in the atari/installation/floppies subdirectory of the NetBSD1.4.1 distribution. One of them is a bootable TOS kernel floppy and the other two are installation floppies. They are described in more detail below. There are gzipped versions of each available, for easier downloading. (The gzipped versions have the .gz extension added to their names.)

Bootable Kernel floppy
This TOS disk contains the loadbsd and chg_pid programs and a kernel. It is setup so that you can insert it int your floppy drive, and start the programs from GEM.

For the TT030 and Falcon, the (720KB) floppy is named boot.fs and the kernel supplied is 'BOOT'. For the Hades, you need the hades-boot.fs floppy (1.44MB), the kernel is 'HADES'.

Installation floppy:
This disk contains a BSD root file system setup to help you install the rest of NetBSD. This includes formatting and mounting your root and /usr partitions and getting ready to extract (and possibly first fetching) the distribution sets. There is enough on this file system to allow you to make a slip connection, configure an ethernet, mount an NFS file system or ftp. You can also load distribution sets from a SCSI tape or from one of your existing GEMDOS partitions.

The floppies meant for 720KB disks are named miniroot.fs.1 and miniroot.fs.2. There is also an image for an 1.44MB disk: miniroot.fs.

There are also TOS utilities in the atari/installation/misc subdirectory, which you will need to get NetBSD/Atari 'up-and-running'.

  • The ``gzip.ttp'' program allows you to uncompress .gz images. The usage is "gzip.ttp -d filename.gz".

  • The ``rawwrite.ttp'' program allows you to create the installation floppy disks from the files in the atari/floppies directory.

  • The "aptck.ttp" program reads the partition tables present on a given disk and tries to interpret then the same way the NetBSD kernel does. If you have a disk on which GEMDOS and NetBSD are to co-exist, It is a good idea to run this before you begin the NetBSD/Atari installation just to check that the kernel's view of the partition tables agree with GEMDOS's view. If you have more than 3 partitions defined on a disk you will notice that the NetBSD/atari partition starts one sector after the GEMDOS partition. This is to allow space for the auxilliary root for the 4th and subsequent partitions.

  • The "loadbsd.ttp" program loads the NetBSD/atari kernel from TOS (or MiNT, MultiTOS, etc.).

Each directory in the atari binary distribution also has its own checksum files, just as the source distribution does:

All BSDSUM files are historic BSD checksums for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command: cksum -o 1   file

All CKSUM files are POSIX checksums for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command: cksum   file.

All MD5 files are MD5 digests for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command: cksum -m   file.

All SYSVSUM files are historic AT&T System V UNIX checksums for the various files in that directory, in the format produced by the command: cksum -o -2   file.

The MD5 digest is the safest checksum, followed by the POSIX checksum. The other two checksums are provided only to ensure that the widest possible range of system can check the integrity of the release files.

NetBSD/atari System Requirements and Supported Devices

NetBSD/atari 1.4.1 runs on a TT030, Falcon and Hades. An FPU is not required. The minimum amount of RAM required is 4Mb. On the Hades, only the Tseng PCI VGA cards (et4000/et6000/et6100) are supported in the 1.4.1 release. When an unsupported video card is present, you can use NetBSD with a serial console only.

Here is a table of recommended HD partition sizes for a full install:

partition:     advise,   with X,   needed,   with X
root (/)  20M  20M  15M  15M
user (/usr)    95M  125M 75M  105M
swap      ----- 2M for every M ram -----
local (/local) up to you
In addition of the rule of thumb for the swap size mentioned below, you probably want to make sure that the size of the swap partition does not drop below 20Mb (30Mb for systems with X). Another item are the add-on packages. You might want 20-30M (or more) in /local (or added to /usr) to store packages from the NetBSD package system. As you may note the recommended size of /usr is 20M greater than needed. This is to leave room for a kernel source and compile tree as you will probably want to compile your own kernel. (GENERIC is large and bulky to accommodate all people, BOOT is small and might not have all the features you want).

Supported devices include:

  • The builtin SCSI host adapter

    - Should support most SCSI-drives.

    - Should support most tape drives.

    - Should support most CD-ROM drives.

    - Should support most ZIP/MO drives.

  • The builtin video controller

  • The builtin (720Kb/1.44Mb) floppydrive

  • The serial2/modem2 ports

  • The Falcon FX memory expansion

  • The atari mouse

  • A 3-button mouse (see build description in the FAQ!)

  • The parallel printer

  • IDE interface on both Falcon and Hades (includes ATAPI support)

  • The serial interface on the first 68901 UART (modem1)

  • VME-bus devices (TT030/Hades)

    - BVME410 ethernet

    - Circad Leonardo 24-bit VME graphics adapter

    - Crazy Dots VME et4000 graphics adapter

    - Riebl (and possibly PAM) ethernet cards on the VME bus.

  • PCI-bus devices (Hades only)

    - ET4000/ET6000/ET6100-PCI (VGA console)

    - Adaptec 2940U

  • ISA-bus devices (Hades only)

    - Teles S0/16.3-ISA ISDN adapter (with I4B)

This list is incomplete by definition. I can not test all SCSI peripherals, ISA cards or PCI cards... If you have problems with such a peripheral, please contact the port-atari mailing list.

Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media

Installation is supported from several media types, including:

  • TOS HD partitions
  • Tape

No matter what you do, however, you'll need to have three disks handy, on which you will put the install and boot floppy images.

All the images are available from the directory "installation/floppies" under the root of the NetBSD/atari tree at your favorite archive site.

If you are using NetBSD/atari to make the floppies, you should use the command dd(1) to write the raw floppy images (.fs files) to the disk. As an example, to write the first part of the miniroot filesystem onto a 720KB floppy in fd0 use:        dd if=miniroot.fs.1 of=/dev/rfd0b bs=9b

If you are using TOS to make the floppies, grab the 'rawwrite' utility from the "atari/utils" directory and issue the command:
       rawwrite boot.fs

This will create the boot-floppy on the floppy in drive a. The floppies should be pre-formatted on 720Kb/1.44Mb for both the 'dd' and 'rawwrite' commands to work. Pre-formatting can be best done using the desktop format command. Some other utilities seem to be giving problems.

Since the 1.3 release, it is also possible to use HD-floppies. You should than use the floppy device '/dev/rfd0c' or add the '-H' flag to 'rawwrite'.

The steps necessary to prepare the distribution sets for installation depend on which method of installation you choose. The various methods are explained below.

  • To prepare for installing via an GEMDOS partition:

    To install NetBSD from an GEMDOS partition, you need to get the NetBSD distribution sets you wish to install on your system on to an GEMDOS partition.

    Note where you placed the files, you will need this later.

    Once you have done this, you can proceed to the next step in the installation process, preparing your hard disk.

  • To prepare for installing via a tape:

    To install NetBSD from a tape, you need to somehow get the NetBSD filesets you wish to install on your system on to the appropriate kind of tape. If you make the tape on a UN*X-like system, you can create it as follows:

    cd .../NetBSD-1.3/atari/binary/sets
    mt -f $T rewind
    for f in base etc comp games man misc text
         dd if=$f.tgz of=$T conv=sync bs=5k
    mt -f $T rewind
    where "<tape_device>" is the name of the (non-rewinding!) tape device that you're using (probably something like /dev/nrst0, but we make no guarantees 8-). If you can't figure it out, ask your system administrator.

    Once you have done this, you can proceed to the next step in the installation process, preparing your hard disk.

Preparing your System for NetBSD Installation

Note you will be modifying your HD's if you mess something up here you could lose everything on all the drives that you work with. It is therefore advised that you:

  • Write down your current configurations. Do this by writing down all partition info (especially their sizes).

  • Back   up   the   partitions   you   are   keeping.

If NetBSD has a disk of it's own, you can delay the partitioning until the installer requests you to do it. This means that you can safely skip the rest of this section.

If NetBSD has to share the disk with another operating system, you must take care of partitioning your harddisk before installing NetBSD; creating space for at least root, swap and /usr partitions and possibly at least one more for /local if you have the space.

The AHDI partioning function erases all partions on your harddisk even if they are not changed! I know this is rather stupid, but don't say I didn't warn you.
If you want to use an AHDI partitioning sceme and you want to be able to boot directly into NetBSD, there are some constraints on the partition layout.

As you might know; every hard disk has a "root sector" that contains information about the size of the hard disk and the partitions on the hard disk. The root sector can only contain the neccessary data for four partitions. Nobody thought that this limitation would cause any problems. After all, 640 KByte should be enough. As hard disk grew, it was neccessary to define more than four partitions. In order to be more or less compatible with the old format, a new type of partition entry was defined: XGM partions.

An XGM partition is a "look over there" sign: Another root sector can be found at the start of the XGM partition. This root sector contains the remaining real partitions. And this is the big mystery: Partitions defined in the root sector of the hard disk are called "primary partitions", partitions defined in the root sector of an XGM partition are called "extended partitions".

The bootblock will only work if the first NBD partition is a primary partition. This is not a limitation of NetBSD but a limitation of TOS/AHDI: You can only boot from primary partitions.

If you are creating your partitions with HDX, you'll have to be very careful to fulfill this rule. HDX has some very strange ideas when it comes to extended partitions. Fortunately, you can edit this stuff: The "Edit partition scheme of the unit" dialog box has a button label "expert". This button is inactive unless you have defined more than four partitions. Click on it *after* you have defined the sizes of the partitions.

A new dialog box appears on the screen. The left side contains two blocks of partitions: The upper block always contains the first four partitions, the lower block contains the last three partitions. If you have defined less than 7 partitions, some fields of the lower block will contain the string "unused". Some of the partitions will be displayed in reverse video: These are the extended partitions.

The right side contains six possible ranges for the extended partitions. It is not possible to define your own range, you will have to use one of the schemes offered by HDX. To quote from Ghostbusters: Choose and die. The default scheme used by HDX is the first scheme: Extended partitions start with the second partition and end with the second to last partition. If you have defined 7 partitions, partitions #2 to #5 will be extended partitions, while partitions #1, #6 and #7 will be primary partitions.

You can move the extended partition range by clicking on one of the buttons on the right side of the dalog box. Try to find one where your first NetBSD partition is a primary partition. Golden rules:

  • If the disk contains no GEMDOS partitions, don't use AHDI. Let NetBSD handle it alone.

  • If the disk contains one GEMDOS partition, make it partition #1 and start the extended partition range at partition #3. This allows you to boot from both the GEMDOS and the NetBSD partitions.

  • If the disk contains two GEMDOS partitions, use partitions #1 and #2 for GEMDOS, partition #3 for NetBSD-root. Start the extended partition range with partition #4.

  • If your disks contains three or more GEMDOS partitions, you are in trouble. Try using partitions #1 and #2 as the first two GEMDOS partitions. Use partition #3 as the first NetBSD partition. Start the extended partition range with partition #4. Put the other NetBSD extended partition range.

Good luck, you'll need it...

Installing the NetBSD System

Installing NetBSD is a relatively complex process, but, if you have this document in hand and are careful to read and remember the information which is presented to you by the install program, it shouldn't be too much trouble.

Before you begin, you must have already prepared your hard disk as detailed in the section on preparing your system for install.

The following is a walk-through of the steps necessary to get NetBSD installed on your hard disk. If you wish to stop the installation, you may hit Control-C at any prompt, but if you do, you'll have to begin again from scratch.

  1. Booting the miniroot First you need to get yourself into NetBSD. This can be done in a couple ways, both of which currently require GEMDOS. You need either the bootfloppy provided in the distribution or you can copy the loadbsd.ttp program and kernel to a boot floppy disk (1.4M needed) or put them on a TOS partition. Select the loadbsd program and it will ask for parameters, supply: '-b netbsd' (or whatever name you copied the kernel to). You can, of course, also run it from the shell command-line in MiNT:
           loadbsd -b a:/netbsd

    You should see the screen clear and some information about your system as the kernel configures the hardware. Then you will be prompted for a root device. At this time remove the GEMDOS kernel boot floppy from the drive if present and insert the BSD install floppy 1. Now type `md0a' to tell the kernel to load the install filesystem into RAMdisk. While While the kernel is loading, it will show a '.' for each track loaded. After loading 80 tracks, it will ask you to insert the next floppy. At this time, insert the BSD install floppy 2 and hit any key. The kernel continous loading another 40 tracks before it continues to boot.

    If you are using 1.44Mb floppies, you should select 'md1a' instead of 'md0a'.
    The system should continue to boot. For now ignore WARNING: messages about bad dates in clocks. Eventually you will be be asked to enter the pathname of the shell, just hit return. After a short while, you will be asked to select the type of your keyboard. After you have entered a valid response here, the system asks you if you want to install or upgrade your system. Since you are reading the 'install' section, 'i' would be the proper response here...

  2. Entering the installer The installer starts with a nice welcome message. Read this message carefully, it also informs you of the risks involved in continuing! If you still want to go on, type 'y'. The installer now continues by trying to figure out your disk configuration. When it is done, you will be prompted to select a root device from the list of disks it has found.

  3. Select your root device You should know at this point that the disks are NOT numbered according to their scsi-id! The NetBSD kernel numbers the scsi drives (and other devices on the scsi bus) sequentially as it finds them. The drive with the lowest scsi id will be called sd0, the next one sd1, etc. Where you end up after the selection of the root disk depends on the contents of your disk. If it is already partitioned using AHDI, start reading at item 4a, if this disk has no AHDI partitioning but is blank or used by another non-AHDI system, start at item 4b.

    You   are   now   at   the   point   of   no   return! The programs in section 4 will modify your harddisk. Type Control-C now if you don't want this.

  4. Setting AHDI partition id's on your root disk (using edahdi) Because NetBSD imposes a special ordering in disk partitions it uses for root and swap. And because it wants to guard you against an unwanted demolition of partitions used by other systems, you have to tell it what partitions it is allowed to use. You have to mark the partition you want to use as swap 'NBS' or 'SWP' and the other partitions as 'NBD'. Note that all the changes you make to the id's are reversable as long as you remember the original value. In the partition-id editor, the partitions are shown in the order that AHDI created them. When you leave this editor and continue at item 4b, your changes to the id's do have consequences to the partition order! They will show up as follows:

    - the first NBD partition

    - the first NBS partition

    d (and up)
    - the rest of the partitions in AHDI order

  5. Labeling your root disk (using edlabel) You are now allowed to change the partitioning of your disk. If your disk is already partitioned with AHDI DON'T change anything unless you are absolutely sure what you are doing! If you are labeling an empty SCSI disk, you can make life easy for yourself by selecting 'standarize geometry'. This allows you to select a 'sectors per track' and 'tracks/cylinder' value and have the (fictious) SCSI geometry changed accordingly. So if you select 64 sect/track and 32 tracks/cylinder, each cylinder is exactly 1Mb in size. Well, go ahead and don't forget to save your work before you quit!

    to make sure that NetBSD can create/mount filesystems on the partitions you defined, make sure the 'type' is entered correctly:

    - filesystems created by NetBSD
    - filesystems shared with GEM

  6. Label additional disks Now that your root-disk is labeled, you are given the opportunity to label any of the other disks in your system. The procedure is the same as with your root disk.

  7. Setup the fstab Since all disks you want to use with NetBSD are properly labeled, it is time to tell the installer which partition will be associated with the different filesystems. As mentioned above, it is wise to make at least a separate root and /usr filesystem. Depending on what you are planning to do with your system, you might also consider to make a separate /var, /local or /home. When you tell the installer that all of your filesystems are specified correctly, it starts creating them for you.

  8. Configure your network Currently none of the kernels supplied in the distribution has network support builtin. If you compiled your own kernel, network configuration mostly works. [ Due to space limitiations, some of the network commands are not present on the install floppy ]

  9. Edit the fstab - again.... Since the network configuration might have lead to additional (nfs) filesystem entries, you get another chance to modify your fstab.

  10. Installing the distribution sets You are finally at the point where some real data will be put on your freshly-made filesystems. Select the device type you whish to install from and off you go.... Some notes:

    • If you want to install from tape, please read the section about how to create such a tape. The tape device name will be "nrst0" for the first tape drive, "nrst1" for the second, etc.

    • Install at least the base and etc sets.

    • If you have to specify a path relative to the mount-point and you need the mount-point itself, enter '.'.

    • For previous NetBSD users: If you want to install from a GEMDOS filesystem, you don't need to rename the distribution sets as you may have done in previous versions of NetBSD.

  11. Timezone selection and device-node building The isn't much to say about this. Just select the timezone you are in. The installer will make the correct setup on your root filesystem. After the timezone-link is installed, the installer will proceed by creating the device nodes on your root filesystem. Be patient, this will take a while...

  12. Installing the kernel Because the kernel didn't fit on the install-disks, the installer asks you about the disk your kernel is on. You can specify the floppy with disk 'fd0' and partition 'b' for 720K disks and partition 'c' for 1.4M disks, or one of the hard disk partitions.

  13. Installing the bootstrap Finally, the installer ask you if you want to install the bootblock code on your root disk. This is a matter of personal choise and can also be done from a running NetBSD system. See the 'installboot(8)' manual page about how to do this.

  14. You did it! Congratulations, you just installed NetBSD successfully! If you also installed a bootblock, you only have to reboot your atari to enter your freshly build system. If you didn't, get back to section 1 (How to boot the miniroot). Just substitute 'md0a' by your NetBSD root disk.
Some Extra Remarks
If you don't want to use the bootloader. You could use the following setup:

  • Reserve a small GEMDOS partition of about 4Mb. This is enough to put in a few kernels. Put the netbsd kernel into this partition. Also, edit your /etc/fstab to always mount this partition, say as /kernels. Now make a symlink from /netbsd to /kernels/netbsd. This sceme is particulary handy when you want to make your own kernel. When compilation is finished, you just copy your kernel to /kernels/netbsd and reboot. It's wise to make sure there is _always_ a 'known to work' kernel image present.

Post installation steps

Once you've got the operating system running, there are a few things you need to do in order to bring the system into a propperly configured state, with the most important ones described below.

  1. Configuring /etc/rc.conf

    If you haven't done any configuration of /etc/rc.conf, the system will drop you into single user mode on first reboot with the message        /etc/rc.conf is not configured. Multiuser boot aborted.
    and with the root filesystem mounted read-write. When the system asks you to choose a shell, simply hit return to get to a prompt. If you are asked for a terminal type, respond with vt220 (or whatever is appropriate for your terminal type) and hit return. At this point, you need to configure at least one file in the /etc directory. Change to the /etc directory and take a look at the /etc/rc.conf file. Modify it to your tastes, making sure that you set rc_configured=YES so that your changes will be enabled and a multi-user boot can proceed. If your /usr directory is on a separate partition and you do not know how to use 'ed' or 'ex', you will have to mount your /usr partition to gain access to 'vi'. Do the following:
           mount /usr
           export TERM=vt220
    If you have /var on a seperate partition, you need to repeat that step for it. After that, you can edit /etc/rc.conf with vi(1). When you have finished, type exit at the prompt to leave the single-user shell and continue with the multi-user boot.

    Other values that need to be set in /etc/rc.conf for a networked environment are hostname   and   possibly defaultroute, furthermore add an ifconfig_int for your interface <int>, along the lines of
           ifconfig_de0="inet netmask"
    or, if you have   in   /etc/hosts:
           ifconfig_de0="inet netmask"
    To enable proper hostname resolution, you will also want to add an /etc/resolv.conf file or (if you are feeling a little more adventurous) run named(8). See resolv.conf(5) or named(8) for more information.

    Other files in /etc that are new to NetBSD 1.4 and may require modification or setting up include /etc/mailer.conf, /etc/nsswitch.conf and /etc/wscons.conf.

  2. Logging in

    After reboot, you can log in as root at the login prompt. There is no initial password, but if you're using the machine in a networked environment, you should create an account for yourself (see below) and protect it and the "root" account with good passwords.

  3. Adding accounts

    Use the vipw(8) command to add accounts to your system, do   not   edit   /etc/passwd directly. See adduser(8) for more information on the process of how to add a new user to the system.

  4. The X Window System

    If you have installed the X window system, look at the files in /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc for information.

    Don't forget to add /usr/X11R6/bin to your path in your shell's dot file so that you have access to the X binaries.

  5. Installing 3rd party packages

    There is a lot of software freely available for Unix-based systems, almost all of which can run on NetBSD. Modifications are usually needed to when transferring programs between different Unix-like systems, so the NetBSD packages collection incorporates any such changes necessary to make that software run on NetBSD, and makes the installation (and deinstallation) of the software packages easy. There's also the option of building a package from source, in case there's no precompiled binary available.

    Precompiled binaries can be found at Package sources for compiling packages can be obtained by retrieving the file and extracting it into /usr/pkgsrc. See /usr/pkgsrc/README then for more information.

  6. Misc

    • To adjust the system to your local timezone, point the /etc/localtime symlink to the appropriate file under /usr/share/zoneinfo.

    • Edit /etc/aliases to forward root mail to the right place (run newaliases(1) afterwards.)

    • The /etc/ file will almost definitely need to be adjusted; files aiding in this can be found in /usr/share/sendmail. See the README file there for more information.

    • Edit /etc/rc.local to run any local daemons you use.

    • Many of the /etc files are documented in section 5 of the manual; so just invoking
             man   filename
      is likely to give you more information on these files.

Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System

Before updating, you probably would want to backup your original filesystems!

The update procedure will not overwrite or remove any files not present in the sets you install. If you've replaced programs present in the distribution, you have to replace them again after you did the update. The etc-set needs special caution. You generally don't want to install this one when upgrading. It is recommended that you get a copy of this set and _carefully_ upgrade your configuration files by hand.

  1. Starting the upgrade

    Ok, let's go. Insert the bootfloppy and follow the 'normal' installation procedure until it asks you if you wish to install or upgrade. At this time, select upgrade. You will now be greeted and reminded of the fact that this is a potential dangerous procedure and that you should not upgrade the etc-set.

  2. Selecting your root disk

    When you decide to proceed, you will be prompted to enter your root disk. After you've done this, it will be checked automatically to make sure that the filesystem is in a sane state before making any modifications. After this is done, you will be asked if you want to configure your network. You can skip this section on NetBSD/Atari for now.

  3. Editing the fstab

    You are now allowed to edit your fstab. Normally you don't have to. Note that the upgrade-kit uses it's own copy of the fstab. Whatever you do here *won't* affect your actual fstab. After you are satisfied with your fstab, the upgrade-kit will check all filesystems mentioned in it. When they're ok, they will be mounted.

  4. The actual upgrade

    You will now be asked if your sets are stored on a normally mounted filesystem. You should answer 'y' to this question if you have the sets stored on a filesystem that was present in the fstab. The actions you should take for the set extraction are pretty logical (I think). You might want to read the notes in section 9 (Installing the distribution sets) of the installation section.

  5. Finishing up

    After you have extracted the sets, the upgrade kit will proceed with setting the timezone and installing the kernel and bootcode. This is all exactly the same as described in the installation section.

Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases

Users upgrading from previous versions of NetBSD may wish to bear the following problems and compatibility issues in mind when upgrading to NetBSD1.4.1

Only issues effecting an upgrade from NetBSD 1.3 or NetBSD 1.3.x are decribed here.

  • "machine" directory/link in "/usr/include"

    Some architecture may fail to install the comp set because the
    directory changed to a symbolic link in NetBSD 1.4.

    If this happens, you can use the command
           # rm -r /usr/include/machine
    to remove the old directory and it contents and reinstall the comp set.

Using online NetBSD documentation

Documentation is available if you first install the manual distribution set. Traditionally, the ``man pages'' (documentation) are denoted by ``name(section)''. Some examples of this are

  • intro(1),
  • man(1),
  • apropros(1),
  • passwd(1), and
  • passwd(5).

The section numbers group the topics into several categories, but three are of primary interest: user commands are in section 1, file formats are in section 5, and administrative information is in section 8.

The   man command is used to view the documentation on a topic, and is started by entering man[   section] topic. The brackets [] around the section should not be entered, but rather indicate that the section is optional. If you don't ask for a particular section, the topic with the lowest numbered section name will be displayed. For instance, after logging in, enter
       man passwd
to read the documentation for passwd(1). To view the documentation for passwd(5)m enter
       man 5 passwd

If you are unsure of what man page you are looking for, enter apropos   subject-word

where subject-word is your topic of interest; a list of possibly related man pages will be displayed.


If you've got something to say, do so! We'd like your input. There are various mailing lists available via the mailing list server at majordomo@NetBSD.ORG. To get help on using the mailing list server, send mail to that address with an empty body, and it will reply with instructions.

There are various mailing lists set up to deal with comments and questions about this release. Please send comments to: netbsd-comments@NetBSD.ORG.

To report bugs, use the send-pr(1) command shipped with NetBSD, and fill in as much information about the problem as you can. Good bug reports include lots of details. Additionally, bug reports can be sent by mail to: netbsd-bugs@NetBSD.ORG.

Use of send-pr(1) is encouraged, however, because bugs reported with it are entered into the NetBSD bugs database, and thus can't slip through the cracks.

There are also port-specific mailing lists, to discuss aspects of each port of NetBSD. Use majordomo to find their addresses. If you're interested in doing a serious amount of work on a specific port, you probably should contact the "owner" of that port (listed below).

If you'd like to help with this effort, and have an idea as to how you could be useful, send us mail or subscribe to: netbsd-help@NetBSD.ORG.

As a favor, please avoid mailing huge documents or files to these mailing lists. Instead, put the material you would have sent up for FTP somewhere, then mail the appropriate list about it, or, if you'd rather not do that, mail the list saying you'll send the data to those who want it.

Thanks go to

  • The former members of UCB's Computer Systems Research Group, including (but not limited to):
    Keith Bostic
    Ralph Campbell
    Mike Karels
    Marshall Kirk McKusick

    for their ongoing work on BSD systems, support, and encouragement.

  • Also, our thanks go to:
    Mike Hibler
    Rick Macklem
    Jan-Simon Pendry
    Chris Torek

    for answering lots of questions, fixing bugs, and doing the various work they've done.

  • UC Berkeley's Experimental Computing Facility provided a home for sun-lamp in the past, people to look after it, and a sense of humor. Rob Robertson, too, has added his unique sense of humor to things, and for a long time provided the primary FTP site for NetBSD.

  • Vixie Enterprises for hosting the NetBSD FTP and SUP server.

  • Redback Networks, Inc. for hosting the NetBSD Mail server.

  • Without CVS, this project would be impossible to manage, so our hats go off to Brian Berliner, Jeff Polk, and the various other people who've had a hand in making CVS a useful tool.

  • Dave Burgess has been maintaining the 386BSD/NetBSD/FreeBSD FAQ for quite some time, and deserves to be recognized for it.

  • The following individuals and organiztions (each in alphabetical order) have made donations or loans of hardware and/or money, to support NetBSD development, and deserve credit for it:

    Jason Birnschein
    Jason Brazile
    David Brownlee
    Simon Burge
    Dave Burgess
    Ralph Campbell
    Brian Carlstrom
    James Chacon
    Bill Coldwell
    Charles Conn
    Tom Coulter
    Charles D. Cranor
    Christopher G. Demetriou
    Scott Ellis
    Hubert Feyrer
    Greg Gingerich
    Guenther Grau
    Ross Harvey
    Charles M. Hannum
    Michael L. Hitch
    Jordan K. Hubbard
    Scott Kaplan
    Noah M. Keiserman
    Chris Legrow
    Neil J. McRae
    Perry E. Metzger
    Herb Peyerl
    Mike Price
    Thor Lancelot Simon
    Bill Sommerfeld
    Paul Southworth
    Ted Spradley
    Kimmo Suominen
    Jason R. Thorpe
    Steve Wadlow

    Advanced System Products, Inc.
    Avalon Computer Systems
    Bay Area Internet Solutions
    Canada Connect Corporation
    Demon Internet, UK
    Digital Equipment Corporation
    Easynet, UK
    Free Hardware Foundation
    Innovation Development Enterprises of America
    Internet Software Consortium
    MS Macro System GmbH, Germany
    Numerical Aerospace Simulation Facility, NASA Ames Research Center
    Piermont Information Systems Inc.
    VMC Harald Frank, Germany
    (If you're not on that list and should be, tell us! We probably were not able to get in touch with you, to verify that you wanted to be listed.)

  • Finally, we thank all of the people who've put sweat and tears into developing NetBSD since its inception in January, 1993. (Obviously, there are a lot more people who deserve thanks here. If you're one of them, and would like to mentioned, tell us!)

We are...

(in alphabetical order)

The NetBSD core group:
Paul Kranenburgpk@NetBSD.ORG
Scott Reynoldsscottr@NetBSD.ORG
Christos Zoulaschristos@NetBSD.ORG

The portmasters (and their ports):
Mark Brinicombemark@NetBSD.ORG arm32
Jeremy Cooperjeremy@NetBSD.ORG sun3x
Ross Harveyross@NetBSD.ORG alpha
Ignatios Souvatzisis@NetBSD.ORG amiga
Eduardo Horvatheeh@NetBSD.ORG sparc64
Paul Kranenburgpk@NetBSD.ORG sparc
Anders Magnussonragge@NetBSD.ORG vax
Tsubai Masanaritsubai@NetBSD.ORG macppc
Tsubai Masanaritsubai@NetBSD.ORG newsmips
Minoura Makotominoura@NetBSD.ORG x68k
Phil Nelsonphil@NetBSD.ORG pc532
Scott Reynoldsscottr@NetBSD.ORG mac68k
Darrin Jewelldbj@NetBSD.ORG next68k
Gordon Rossgwr@NetBSD.ORG sun3, sun3x
Kazuki Sakamotosakamoto@NetBSD.ORG bebox
Wolfgang Solfrankws@NetBSD.ORG powerpc
Jonathan Stonejonathan@NetBSD.ORG pmax
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.ORG hp300
Frank van der Lindenfvdl@NetBSD.ORG i386
Leo Weppelmanleo@NetBSD.ORG atari
Steve Woodfordscw@NetBSD.ORG mvme68k

The NetBSD 1.4.1 Release Engineering team:
Ted Lemonmellon@NetBSD.ORG
Perry Metzgerperry@NetBSD.ORG
Curt Sampsoncjs@NetBSD.ORG

Developers and other contributors:
Steve Allenwormey@NetBSD.ORG
Lennart Augustssonaugustss@NetBSD.ORG
Christoph Badurabad@NetBSD.ORG
Manuel Bouyerbouyer@NetBSD.ORG
Robert V. Baronrvb@NetBSD.ORG
John Brezakbrezak@NetBSD.ORG
Allen Briggsbriggs@NetBSD.ORG
Aaron Brownabrown@NetBSD.ORG
David Brownleeabs@NetBSD.ORG
Simon Burgesimonb@NetBSD.ORG
Dave Carrelcarrel@NetBSD.ORG
Bill Coldwellbillc@NetBSD.ORG
Chuck Cranorchuck@NetBSD.ORG
Alistair Crooksagc@NetBSD.ORG
Aidan Cullyaidan@NetBSD.ORG
Rob Dekerdeker@NetBSD.ORG
Chris G. Demetrioucgd@NetBSD.ORG
Matthias Drochnerdrochner@NetBSD.ORG
Enami Tsugutomoenami@NetBSD.ORG
Bernd Ernestiveego@NetBSD.ORG
Erik Fairfair@NetBSD.ORG
Hubert Feyrerhubertf@NetBSD.ORG
Thorsten Frueauffrueauf@NetBSD.ORG
Brian R.
Thomas Gernerthomas@NetBSD.ORG
Justin Gibbsgibbs@NetBSD.ORG
Adam Glassglass@NetBSD.ORG
Michael Graffexplorer@NetBSD.ORG
Matthew Greenmrg@NetBSD.ORG
Juergen Hannken-Illjeshannken@NetBSD.ORG
Charles M. Hannummycroft@NetBSD.ORG
Eric Haszlakiewiczerh@NetBSD.ORG
Michael L. Hitchosymh@NetBSD.ORG
Ken Hornsteinkenh@NetBSD.ORG
Marc Horowitzmarc@NetBSD.ORG
ITOH Yasufumiitohy@NetBSD.ORG
Matthew Jacobmjacob@NetBSD.ORG
Lonhyn T. Jasinskyjlonhyn@NetBSD.ORG
Darrin Jewelldbj@NetBSD.ORG
Klaus Kleinkleink@NetBSD.ORG
John Kohljtk@NetBSD.ORG
Kevin Laheykml@NetBSD.ORG
Ted Lemonmellon@NetBSD.ORG
Mike Longmikel@NetBSD.ORG
Paul Mackerraspaulus@NetBSD.ORG
Neil J. McRaeneil@NetBSD.ORG
Perry Metzgerperry@NetBSD.ORG
Luke Mewburnlukem@NetBSD.ORG
der Mousemouse@NetBSD.ORG
Tohru Nishimuranisimura@NetBSD.ORG
Masaru Okioki@NetBSD.ORG
Greg Osteroster@NetBSD.ORG
Herb Peyerlhpeyerl@NetBSD.ORG
Matthias Pfallermatthias@NetBSD.ORG
Dante Profetadante@NetBSD.ORG
Chris Provenzanoproven@NetBSD.ORG
Darren Reeddarrenr@NetBSD.ORG
Tim Rightnourgarbled@NetBSD.ORG
Heiko W. Rupphwr@NetBSD.ORG
SAITOH Masanobumsaitoh@NetBSD.ORG
Kazuki Sakamotosakamoto@NetBSD.ORG
Curt Sampsoncjs@NetBSD.ORG
Wilfredo Sanchezwsanchez@NetBSD.ORG
Ty Sarnatsarna@NetBSD.ORG
Matthias Schelertron@NetBSD.ORG
Karl Schilke (rAT)rat@NetBSD.ORG
Tim Shepardshep@NetBSD.ORG
Chuck Silverschs@NetBSD.ORG
Thor Lancelot Simontls@NetBSD.ORG
Noriyuki Sodasoda@NetBSD.ORG
Wolfgang Solfrankws@NetBSD.ORG
Bill Sommerfeldsommerfeld@NetBSD.ORG
Ignatios Souvatzisis@NetBSD.ORG
Bill Studenmundwrstuden@NetBSD.ORG
Kevin Sullivansullivan@NetBSD.ORG
Kimmo Suominenkim@NetBSD.ORG
Matt Thomasmatt@NetBSD.ORG
Jason Thorpethorpej@NetBSD.ORG
Christoph Toshoktoshok@NetBSD.ORG
Todd Vierlingtv@NetBSD.ORG
Paul Vixievixie@NetBSD.ORG
Krister Walfridssonkristerw@NetBSD.ORG
Nathan Williamsnathanw@NetBSD.ORG
Colin Woodender@NetBSD.ORG

Legal Mumbo-Jumbo

The following notices are required to satisfy the license terms of the software that we have mentioned in this document:

This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.

This product includes software developed by the Computer Systems Engineering Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.

This product includes software developed by the NetBSD Foundation, Inc. and its contributors.

This product includes software developed by Adam Glass and Charles Hannum.

This product includes software developed by Adam Glass.

This product includes software developed by Berkeley Software Design, Inc.

This product includes software developed by Charles D. Cranor and Washington University.

This product includes software developed by Charles D. Cranor.

This product includes software developed by Charles Hannum, by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman, by William F. Jolitz, and by the University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and its contributors.

This product includes software developed by Charles Hannum.

This product includes software developed by Charles M. Hannum.

This product includes software developed by Chris Provenzano.

This product includes software developed by Christian E. Hopps.

This product includes software developed by Christopher G. Demetriou for the NetBSD Project.

This product includes software developed by Christopher G. Demetriou.

This product includes software developed by Christos Zoulas.

This product includes software developed by David Jones and Gordon Ross.

This product includes software developed by Dean Huxley.

This product includes software developed by Eric S. Hvozda.

This product includes software developed by Ezra Story.

This product includes software developed by Gordon Ross.

This product includes software developed by Gordon W. Ross and Leo Weppelman.

This product includes software developed by Gordon W. Ross.

This product includes software developed by Herb Peyerl.

This product includes software developed by Ian W. Dall.

This product includes software developed by Ignatios Souvatzis for the NetBSD Project.

This product includes software developed by Jason R. Thorpe for And Communications,

This product includes software developed by Joachim Koenig-Baltes.

This product includes software developed by Jochen Pohl for The NetBSD Project.

This product includes software developed by John Polstra.

This product includes software developed by Jonathan Stone and Jason R. Thorpe for the NetBSD Project.

This product includes software developed by Jonathan Stone for the NetBSD Project.

This product includes software developed by Jonathan Stone.

This product includes software developed by Julian Highfield.

This product includes software developed by Kenneth Stailey.

This product includes software developed by Leo Weppelman.

This product includes software developed by Lloyd Parkes.

This product includes software developed by Mark Brinicombe.

This product includes software developed by Markus Wild.

This product includes software developed by Martin Husemann and Wolfgang Solfrank.

This product includes software developed by Mats O Jansson and Charles D. Cranor.

This product includes software developed by Mats O Jansson.

This product includes software developed by Matthias Pfaller.

This product includes software developed by Paul Kranenburg.

This product includes software developed by Paul Mackerras.

This product includes software developed by Peter Galbavy.

This product includes software developed by Philip A. Nelson.

This product includes software developed by Rodney W. Grimes.

This product includes software developed by Scott Bartram.

This product includes software developed by SigmaSoft, Th. Lockert.

This product includes software developed by Terrence R. Lambert.

This product includes software developed by Theo de Raadt and John Brezak.

This product includes software developed by Theo de Raadt.

This product includes software developed by TooLs GmbH.

This product includes software developed by Winning Strategies, Inc.

This product includes software developed by the Center for Software Science at the University of Utah.

This product includes software developed by the University of Calgary Department of Computer Science and its contributors.

This product includes software developed by the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College and Garrett A. Wollman.

This product includes software developed for the FreeBSD project.

This product includes software developed for the Internet Software Consortium by Ted Lemon.

This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Frank van der Linden.

This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Jason R. Thorpe.

This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by John M. Vinopal.

This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Matthias Drochner.

This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Matthieu Herrb.

This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Perry E. Metzger.

This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Piermont Information Systems Inc.

This product includes software developed for the NetBSD Project by Ted Lemon.

This product includes software developed by LAN Media Corporation and its contributors.

This product includes software developed by Michael Graff for the NetBSD Project.

This product includes software developed by Gordon Ross

This product includes software developed by Leo Weppelman.

This product includes software developed by Markus Wild.

This product includes software developed by Thomas Gerner

This product includes software developed by Waldi Ravens.