About this Document............................................2 Quick install notes for the impatient..........................3 What is NetBSD?................................................3 Changes Between The NetBSD 1.6 and 2.0 Releases................3 Kernel......................................................4 Networking..................................................4 File system.................................................5 Security....................................................5 System administration and user tools........................5 Miscellaneous...............................................5 i386 specific...............................................6 Important notes about NetBSD 2.0...............................6 The Future of NetBSD...........................................6 Sources of NetBSD..............................................7 NetBSD 2.0 Release Contents....................................7 NetBSD/i386 subdirectory structure..........................8 Binary distribution sets....................................9 NetBSD/i386 System Requirements and Supported Devices.........11 Supported devices..........................................11 Floppy controllers......................................11 MFM, ESDI, IDE, and RLL hard disk controllers...........11 SCSI host adapters......................................11 MDA, CGA, VGA, SVGA, and HGC Display Adapters...........12 Serial ports............................................12 Parallel ports..........................................12 Ethernet adapters.......................................12 FDDI adapters...........................................14 Token-Ring adapters.....................................14 Wireless network adapters...............................14 High Speed Serial.......................................14 Tape drives.............................................14 CD-ROM drives...........................................14 Mice....................................................14 Sound Cards.............................................15 Game Ports (Joysticks)..................................15 Miscellaneous...........................................15 PCMCIA Controllers......................................15 RAID Controllers........................................15 Specific driver footnotes:..............................16 Unsupported devices........................................16 Required configurations....................................16 Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media..................19 Preparing your System for NetBSD installation.................21 Installing the NetBSD System..................................22 Running the sysinst installation program...................22 Introduction............................................22 Possible PCMCIA issues..................................22 General.................................................24 Quick install...........................................24 Booting NetBSD..........................................26 Network configuration...................................26 Installation drive selection and parameters.............26 Partitioning the disk...................................27 Preparing your hard disk................................28 Getting the distribution sets...........................28 Installation using ftp..................................29 Installation using NFS..................................29 Installation from CD-ROM................................29 Installation from a floppy set..........................30 Installation from an unmounted file system..............30 Installation from a local directory.....................30 Extracting the distribution sets........................30 Finalizing your installation............................30 Post installation steps.......................................30 Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System................33 Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases............34 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 1.6................34 Using online NetBSD documentation.............................35 Administrivia.................................................35 Thanks go to..................................................36 We are........................................................38 Legal Mumbo-Jumbo.............................................43 The End.......................................................49
This document describes the installation procedure for
It is available in four different formats titled
is one of
less(1)pager utility programs. This is the format in which the on-line man pages are generally presented.
You are reading the HTML version.
This section contains some brief notes describing what you need to install NetBSD2.0 on a machine of the i386 architecture.
i386/installation/floppy/directory. Most people will need the
boot2.fsimages, or possibly (but not necessarily)
bootlap2.fsif installing on a laptop.
i386/binary/sets/directory. When you boot the install floppies, the installation program can fetch these files for you (using e.g. ftp), if you have a network connection. There are several other methods to get the binary sets onto your machine.
You will at a minimum need
one of the kernel sets, typically
as well as
In a typical workstation installation you will probably want
all the installation sets.
rawrite32.zip) in the
i386/installation/misc/directory may be of help.
The disk(s) you just prepared will be used to boot the installation kernel, which contains all the tools required to install NetBSD.
The NetBSD Operating System is a fully functional Open Source UNIX-like operating system derived from the University of California, Berkeley Networking Release 2 (Net/2), 4.4BSD-Lite, and 4.4BSD-Lite2 sources. NetBSD runs on fifty four different system architectures (ports), featuring seventeen machine architectures across fifteen distinct CPU families, and is being ported to more. The NetBSD2.0 release contains complete binary releases for many different system architectures. (A few ports are not fully supported at this time and are thus not part of the binary distribution. For information on them, please see the NetBSD web site at http://www.NetBSD.org/.)
NetBSD is a completely integrated system. In addition to its highly portable, high performance kernel, NetBSD features a complete set of user utilities, compilers for several languages, the X Window System, firewall software and numerous other tools, all accompanied by full source code.
NetBSD is a creation of the members of the Internet community. Without the unique cooperation and coordination the net makes possible, it's likely that NetBSD wouldn't exist.
The NetBSD2.0 release provides numerous significant functional enhancements, including support for many new devices, integration of hundreds of bug fixes, new and updated kernel subsystems, and many user-land enhancements. The result of these improvements is a stable operating system fit for production use that rivals most commercially available systems.
It is impossible to completely summarize over two years of development that went into the NetBSD2.0 release. Some highlights include:
sysctl(9)was switched from a static binding to a dynamic implementation.
satalink(4)and move SATA support from other controllers into this along with adding support for new controllers.
ipf(8)has been upgraded to version 4.1.3.
tcp(4)now implements path MTU discovery blackhole detection (i.e. it will turn off path MTU discovery if the connection is losing).
wi(4)has support for Host-AP mode, allowing Intersil Prism2/2.5/3-based boards to be used to make an 802.11 Access Point.
ipf(8)has been added to
Kernel interfaces have continued to be refined, and more subsystems and device drivers are shared among the different ports. You can look for this trend to continue.
This is the ninth major release of NetBSD for the i386.
As is usual between releases, the i386 port has had many improvements made to it--too many to detail all of them here.
Numerous new drivers have been added. See the supported hardware list for details.
Some (but not all!) notable i386-specific improvements include:
NetBSD2.0 on i386 is, as usual, also fully backward compatible with old NetBSD/i386 binaries, so you don't need to recompile all your local programs provided you set the appropriate binary compatibility options in your kernel configuration.
In order to retain the functionality that a newly installed system can send mail ``out of the box'', the default has changed so that sendmail will now start by default, and listen for host-local connections.
If this behaviour is not desired, you can either
/etc/mail/submit.cfto point to another host,
/etc/mailer.confto point to something else than sendmail, or
/etc/mail/submit.cf, and set the sendmail_suid variable to ``YES'' in
The NetBSD Foundation has been incorporated as a non-profit organization. Its purpose is to encourage, foster and promote the free exchange of computer software, namely the NetBSD Operating System. The foundation will allow for many things to be handled more smoothly than could be done with our previous informal organization. In particular, it provides the framework to deal with other parties that wish to become involved in the NetBSD Project.
The NetBSD Foundation will help improve the quality of NetBSD by:
We intend to begin narrowing the time delay between releases. Our ambition is to provide a full release every six to eight months.
We hope to support even more hardware in the future, and we have a rather large number of other ideas about what can be done to improve NetBSD.
We intend to continue our current practice of making the NetBSD-current development source available on a daily basis.
We intend to integrate free, positive changes from whatever sources submit them, providing that they are well thought-out and increase the usability of the system.
Above all, we hope to create a stable and accessible system, and to be
responsive to the needs and desires of
users, because it is for
and because of them that
The root directory of the NetBSD2.0 release is organized as follows:
In addition to the files and directories listed above, there is one directory per architecture, for each of the architectures for which NetBSD2.0 has a binary distribution.
The source distribution sets can be found in subdirectories of the
subdirectory of the distribution tree.
They contain the complete sources to the system.
The source distribution sets are as follows:
All the above source sets are located in the
subdirectory of the distribution tree.
The source sets are distributed as compressed tar files.
Except for the
set, which is traditionally unpacked into
all sets may be unpacked into
with the command:
#( cd / ; tar -zxpf - ) < set_name.tgz
In each of the source distribution set directories, there are files which contain the checksums of the files in the directory:
The MD5 digest is the safest checksum, followed by the POSIX checksum. The other two checksums are provided only to ensure that the widest possible range of system can check the integrity of the release files.
i386subdirectory of the distribution:
.../NetBSD-2.0/i386/. It contains the following files and directories:
.morefile contains underlined text using the
more(1)conventions for indicating italic and bold display.
GENERICthat has USB, PCMCIA and CardBus enabled to allow installing on laptop machines.
GENERICintended to run on machines with less than 8 MB.
GENERICintended to run on IBM PS/2 machines.
INSTALLintended to run on machines with less than 8 MB.
INSTALLintended to fit on 5.25"/1.2 MB diskettes.
INSTALLthat has USB, PCMCIA and CardBus enabled to allow installing on laptop machines.
INSTALLthat has MCA stuff enabled to allow installing on IBM PS/2 machines.
i386/binary/setssubdirectory of the NetBSD2.0 distribution tree, and are as follows:
/usr/include) and the various system libraries (except the shared libraries, which are included as part of the base set). This set also includes the manual pages for all of the utilities it contains, as well as the system call and library manual pages.
/etcand in several other places. This set must be installed if you are installing the system from scratch, but should not be used if you are upgrading.
/netbsd. You must install this distribution set.
groff(1), all related programs, and their manual pages.
NetBSD maintains its own set of sources for the X Window System in order to assure tight integration and compatibility. These sources are based on XFree86, and tightly track XFree86 releases. They are currently equivalent to XFree86 4.4.0. Binary sets for the X Window System are distributed with NetBSD. The sets are:
The i386 binary distribution sets are distributed as gzipped tar files
named with the extension
The instructions given for extracting the source sets work equally
well for the binary sets, but it is worth noting that if you use that
method, the filenames stored in the sets are relative and therefore
the files are extracted
below the current directory.
Therefore, if you want to extract the binaries into your system, i.e.
replace the system binaries with them, you have to run the
command from the root directory (
) of your system.
This utility is used only in a Traditional method installation.
NetBSD2.0 runs on ISA (AT-Bus), EISA, MCA, PCI, and VL-bus systems with 386-family processors, with or without math coprocessors. The minimal configuration is said to require 4 MB of RAM and 50 MB of disk space, though we do not know of anyone running with a system quite this minimal today. To install the entire system requires much more disk space (the unpacked binary distribution, without sources, requires at least 65 MB without counting space needed for swap space, etc), and to run X or compile the system, more RAM is recommended. (4 MB of RAM will actually allow you to run X and/or compile, but it won't be speedy. Note that until you have around 16 MB of RAM, getting more RAM is more important than getting a faster CPU.)
Most of these controllers are only available in multifunction PCI chips. Other PCI IDE controllers are supported, but performance may not be optimal. ISA, ISA Plug and Play and PCMCIA IDE controllers are supported as well.
Specific driver footnotes:
GENERICkernels, although it is not in the kernels which are on the distribution floppies.
We are planning future support for many of these devices.
Device Name Port IRQ DRQ Misc ------ ---- ---- --- --- ---- Serial ports com0 0x3f8 4 [8250/16450/16550/clones] com1 0x2f8 3 [8250/16450/16550/clones] com2 0x3e8 5 [8250/16450/16550/clones]
Parallel ports lpt0 0x378 7 [interrupt-driven or polling] lpt1 0x278 [polling only] lpt2 0x3bc [polling only]
Floppy controller fdc0 0x3f0 6 2 [supports two disks]
AHA-154x, AHA-174x (in compatibility mode), or BT-54x SCSI host adapters aha0 0x330 any any aha1 0x334 any any
AHA-174x SCSI host adapters (in enhanced mode) ahb0 any any any
AHA-152x, AIC-6260- or AIC-6360-based SCSI host adapters aic0 0x340 11 6
AHA-2X4X or AIC-7xxx-based SCSI host adapters [precise list: see NetBSD ahc0 any any any System Requirements and Supported Devices]
AdvanSys ABP-9x0[U][A] SCSI host adapters adv0 any any any
AdvanSys ABP-940UW, ABP-970UW, ASB3940UW-00 SCSI host adapters adw0 any any any
AMD PCscsi-PCI based SCSI host adapters pcscp0 any any any
BusLogic BT445, BT74x, or BT9xx SCSI host adapters bha0 0x330 any any bha1 0x334 any any
Seagate/Future Domain SCSI sea0 any 5 any iomem 0xd8000
Symbios Logic/NCR 53C8xx, 53c1010 and 53c1510D based PCI SCSI host adapters siop0 any any any esiop0 any any any
Ultrastor 14f, 24f (if it works), or 34f SCSI host adapters uha0 0x330 any any uha1 0x340 any any
Western Digital WD7000 based ISA SCSI host adapters wds0 0x350 15 6 wds1 0x358 11 5
PCI IDE hard disk controllers pciide0 any any any [supports four devices]
MFM/ESDI/IDE/RLL hard disk controllers wdc0 0x1f0 14 [supports two devices] wdc1 0x170 15 [supports two devices]
ATA disks wd0, wd1, ... SCSI and ATAPI disks sd0, sd1, ... SCSI tapes st0, st1, ... SCSI and ATAPI CD-ROMs cd0, cd1, ... For each SCSI and IDE controller found, the SCSI or ATA(PI) devices present on the bus are probed in increasing ID order for SCSI and master/slave order for ATA(PI). So the first SCSI drive found will be called sd0, the second sd1, and so on ...
StarLAN cards ai0 0x360 7 any iomem 0xd0000
FMV-180 series cards fmv0 0x2a0 any
AT1700 cards ate0 0x2a0 any
Intel EtherExpress/16 cards ix0 0x300 10
Intel EtherExpress PRO 10 ISA cards iy0 0x360 any
CS8900 Ethernet cards cs0 0x300 any any
3Com 3c501 Ethernet cards el0 0x300 9
3Com 3c503 Ethernet cards ec0 0x250 9 iomem 0xd8000
3Com 3c505 Ethernet cards eg0 0x280 9
3Com 3c507 Ethernet cards ef0 0x360 7 iomem 0xd0000
Novell NE1000, or NE2000 Ethernet boards ne0 0x280 9 ne1 0x300 10
Novell NE2100 Ethernet boards ne2 0x320 9 7
BICC IsoLan cards ne3 0x320 10 7
SMC/WD 8003, 8013, Elite16, and Elite16 Ultra Ethernet boards we0 0x280 9 iomem 0xd0000 we1 0x300 10 iomem 0xcc000
3COM 3c509 or 3COM 3c579 Ethernet boards ep0 any any
3COM 3x59X PCI Ethernet boards ep0 any any [you must assign an interrupt in your PCI BIOS, or let it do so for you]
3COM 3x90X PCI Ethernet boards ex0 any any [you must assign an interrupt in your PCI BIOS, or let it do so for you]
Intel EtherExpress PRO 10 ISA iy0 0x360 any
Intel EtherExpress 100 Fast Ethernet adapters fxp0 any any [you must assign an interrupt in your PCI BIOS, or let it do so for you]
SMC91C9x based Ethernet cards sm0 0x300 10
PCnet-PCI based Ethernet boards; see above for partial list le0 any any [you must assign an interrupt in your PCI BIOS, or let it do so for you]
DC21x4x based Ethernet boards; see above for partial list de0 any any [you must assign an interrupt in your PCI BIOS, or let it do so for you]
Digital EtherWORKS III (DE203/DE204/DE205) LEMAC lc0 0x320 any
Qlogic ISP 0x0 SCSI/FibreChannel boards isp0 any any
Efficient Networks EN-155 and Adaptec AIC-590x ATM interfaces en0 any any
SMC EPIC/100 Fast Ethernet boards epic0 any any
Texas Instruments ThunderLAN based ethernet boards tl0 any any
VIA VT3043(Rhine) and VT86C100A(Rhine-II) based ethernet boards vr0 any any
IBM TROPIC based Token-Ring cards tr0 0xa20 any iomem 0xd8000 tr1 0xa24 any iomem 0xd0000 tr2 any any
If you are not booting off a CD-ROM, you will need to have some floppy disks to boot off; either two 1.44 MB floppies or one 1.2 MB floppy.
For laptops that have cardbus slots, you should use the
For older machines with little RAM, use
This image is tailored towards old, small-memory systems, and thus does
not contain any PCI or SCSI support.
It should work on systems with 4M of RAM.
Note that this means 4M available to NetBSD; systems that
are said to have 4M may have 640k of base memory and 3072k of extended
memory, which currently will not work, as this is a total of 3712k.
For old machines that may have EISA, SCSI and more RAM, but only
have a 1.2M floppy drive, use
For old IBM PS/2 machines with MCA, use
For all other systems, use
For the 2-floppy sets (and the CD boot image), utilities to repair
a badly crashed systems are included.
image has a separate
rescue floppy image because of lack of space.
If you are using a
system to write the floppy images to
disks, you should use the
command to copy the file system image(s)
(.fs file) directly to the raw floppy disk.
It is suggested that you read the
manual page or ask your system administrator to determine the correct
set of arguments to use; it will be slightly different from system to
system, and a comprehensive list of the possibilities is beyond the
scope of this document.
If you are using
to write the floppy image(s) to floppy disk, you should use the
utility, provided in the
directory of the
It will write a file system image (.fs file) to a floppy disk.
is also available that runs under
Note that if you are installing or upgrading from a writable media, the media can be write-protected if you wish. These systems mount a root image from inside the kernel, and will not need to write to the media. If you booted from a floppy, the floppy disk may be removed from the drive after the system has booted.
Installation is supported from several media types, including:
The steps necessary to prepare the distribution sets for installation depend upon which installation medium you choose. The steps for the various media are outlined below.
Proceed to the instruction on installation.
split(1)command, running e.g. split -b 235k base.tgz base. to split the
i386/binary/setsinto files named
base.ab, and so on. Repeat this for all
set_name.tgzfiles, splitting them into
set_name.xx files. Count the number of
set_name.xx files that make up the distribution sets you want to install or upgrade. You will need one fifth that number of 1.2 MB floppies, or one sixth that number of 1.44 MB floppies. You should only use one size of floppy for the install or upgrade procedure; you can't use some 1.2 MB floppies and some 1.44 MB floppies.
Format all of the floppies with
make any of them bootable
floppies, i.e. don't use
to format them.
(If the floppies are bootable, then the
system files that make them bootable will take up some space, and you
won't be able to fit the distribution set parts on the disks.)
If you're using floppies that are formatted for
by their manufacturers, they probably aren't bootable, and you can use
them out of the box.
Place all of the
files on the
Once you have the files on MS-DOS disks, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.
184.108.40.206and the IPv6 address is
2001:4f8:4:7:2e0:81ff:fe21:6563(as of June, 2004).
Once you have this information, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.
/etc/exportsfile on of the NFS server and resetting its mount daemon (mountd). (Both of these actions will probably require superuser privileges on the server.)
You need to know the numeric IP address of the NFS server, and, if you don't have DHCP available on your network and the server is not on a network directly connected to the machine on which you're installing or upgrading NetBSD, you need to know the numeric IP address of the router closest to the NetBSD machine. Finally, you need to know the numeric IP address of the NetBSD machine itself.
Once the NFS server is set up properly and you have the information mentioned above, you can proceed to the next step in the installation or upgrade process. If you're installing NetBSD from scratch, go to the section on preparing your hard disk, below. If you're upgrading an existing installation, go directly to the section on upgrading.
First and foremost, before beginning the installation process, make sure you have a reliable backup of any data on your hard disk that you wish to keep. Mistakes in partitioning your hard disk may lead to data loss.
Before you begin, you should be aware of the geometry issues that may arise in relation to your hard disk. First of all, you should know about sector size. You can count on this to be 512 bytes; other sizes are rare (and currently not supported). Of particular interest are the number of sectors per track, the number of tracks per cylinder (also known as the number of heads), and the number of cylinders. Together they describe the disk geometry.
The BIOS has a limit of 1024 cylinders and 63 sectors per track for doing BIOS I/O. This is because of the old programming interface to the BIOS that restricts these values. Most of the big disks currently being used have more than 1024 real cylinders. Some have more than 63 sectors per track. Therefore, the BIOS can be instructed to use a fake geometry that accesses most of the disk and the fake geometry has less than or equal to 1024 cylinders and less than or equal to 63 sectors. This is possible because the disks can be addressed in a way that is not restricted to these values, and the BIOS can internally perform a translation. This can be activated in most modern BIOSes by using Large or LBA mode for the disk.
NetBSD does not have the mentioned limitations with regard to the geometry. However, since the BIOS has to be used during startup, it is important to know about the geometry the BIOS uses. The NetBSD kernel should be on a part of the disk where it can be loaded using the BIOS, within the limitations of the BIOS geometry. The install program will check this for you, and will give you a chance to correct this if this is not the case.
If you have not yet installed any other systems on the hard disk that you plan to install NetBSD on, or if you plan to use the disk entirely for NetBSD, you may wish to check your BIOS settings for the `Large' or `LBA' modes, and activate them for the hard disk in question. While they are not needed by NetBSD as such, doing so will remove the limitations mentioned above, and will avoid hassle should you wish to share the disk with other systems. Do not change these settings if you already have data on the disk that you want to preserve!
In any case, it is wise to check your the BIOS settings for the hard disk geometry before beginning the installation, and write them down. While this should usually not be needed, it enables you to verify that the install program determines these values correctly.
The geometry that the BIOS uses will be referred to as the BIOS geometry, the geometry that NetBSD uses is the real geometry.
sysinst, the NetBSD installation program, will try to discover both the real geometry and BIOS geometry.
know the proper
geometry to be able
to boot, regardless of where on your disk you put it.
It is less of a concern if the disk is going to be used entirely for
If you intend to have several OSes on your disk, this becomes
a much larger issue.
Using sysinst, installing NetBSD is a relatively easy process. You still should read this document and have it in hand when doing the installation process. This document tries to be a good guideline for the installation and as such covers many details for the sake of completeness. Do not let this discourage you; the install program is not hard to use.
Machines with PCMCIA slots may have problems during installation. If you do not have PCMCIA on your machine (PCMCIA is only really used on laptop machines), you can skip this section, and ignore the ``[PCMCIA]'' notes. If you do have PCMCIA in your machine, you can safely ignore this section and the ``[PCMCIA]'' the first time, as you are likely to not have problems. Should troubles occur during floppy boot, they may be PCMCIA specific. You should then re-read this section and try again, following the instructions in the ``[PCMCIA]'' notes.
This section explains how to work around the installation problem.
The kernel keeps careful track of what interrupts
and I/O ports are in use during autoconfiguration.
It then allows the
devices to pick unused interrupts and I/O ports.
kernel may not detect all devices in your system.
This may be because the
kernel only supports the minimum set of devices to install
on your system, or it may be that
does not have support for the device causing the conflict.
For example, suppose your laptop has a
soundblaster device built in; the
kernel has no sound support.
code might allocate your soundblaster's
and I/O ports to
devices, causing them not to work, or to lock up the system.
This is especially bad if one of the devices in question is your ethernet card.
The kernel attempts to probe for available interrupts that are usable by the PCIC (PCMCIA interrupt controller), which should alleviate interrupt conflicts; however, I/O port conflicts are still possible.
This problem will impact some, but not all, users of PCMCIA. If this problem is affecting you, watch the ``[PCMCIA]'' notes that will appear in this document.
It can be difficult to distinguish an interrupt conflict from an I/O space conflict. There are no hard-and-fast rules, but interrupt conflicts are more likely to lock up the machine, and I/O space conflicts are more likely to result in misbehavior (e.g. a network card that cannot send or receive packets).
The kernel selects a free interrupt according to a mask of allowable interrupts, stored in the kernel global variable pcic_isa_intr_alloc_mask. This mask is a logical-or of power-of-2s of allowable interrupts:
IRQ Val IRQ Val IRQ Val IRQ Val 0 0x0001 4 0x0010 8 0x0100 12 0x1000 1 0x0002 5 0x0020 9 0x0200 13 0x2000 2 0x0004 6 0x0040 10 0x0400 14 0x4000 3 0x0008 7 0x0080 11 0x0800 15 0x8000
For example, 0x0a00 allows both IRQ 9 and IRQ 11.
By default, the
kernel permits all IRQs other than IRQs 5 and 7, so the corresponding
mask is 0xff5f.
kernel, however, allows all IRQs.
(The presumption here is that IRQ 10 may be assigned to a device that the
supports, but that the
Because of support for interrupt probing, it is no
longer necessary to exclude IRQs 3 and 5 explicitly; if they are
in use, they should not be assigned to
The kernel selects IO space by assigning cards IO space within a predefined range. The range is specified as a base and size, specified by the kernel global variables pcic_isa_alloc_iobase and pcic_isa_alloc_iosize. For systems with 12-bit addressing (most systems), the kernel defaults to a base of 0x400 and a size of 0xbff (a range of 0x400-0xfff). For systems with 10-bit addressing, the kernel defaults to a base of 0x300 and a size of 0xff (range of 0x300-0x3ff).
Unfortunately, these ranges may conflict with some devices. In the event of a conflict, try a base of 0x330 with a size of 0x0bf (range of 0x330-0x3ff).
In order to work around this at installation time, you may
interrupt the 5 second countdown when booting the
kernel, and use
in order to enter
(the in-kernel debugger), and then use the
command to alter the variable values:
db> write pcic_isa_intr_alloc_mask 0x0a00
pcic_isa_intr_alloc_mask 0xff5f = 0xa00
db> write pcic_isa_alloc_iobase 0x330
pcic_isa_alloc_iobase 0x400 = 0x330
db> write pcic_isa_alloc_iosize 0x0bf
pcic_isa_alloc_iosize 0xbff = 0xbf
Note that, since some floppy images may not have symbol information in
the kernel, you may have to consult the matching
file in the
directory in the installation tree.
Find the pcic_ symbols used above,
look at the hexadecimal value in the first column, and write, for
is equal to c0513e3c):
db> write 0xc0513e3c 0x0a00
After installation, this value can be permanently written to the kernel image directly with:
# cp /netbsd /netbsd.bak
# gdb --write /netbsd
(gdb) set pcic_isa_intr_alloc_mask=0x0a00
(gdb) set pcic_isa_alloc_iobase=0x330
(gdb) set pcic_isa_alloc_iosize=0x0bf
or you could specify these value when configuring your kernel, e.g.:
options PCIC_ISA_INTR_ALLOC_MASK=0x0a00 options PCIC_ISA_ALLOC_IOBASE=0x330 options PCIC_ISA_ALLOC_IOSIZE=0x0bf
If you can get your PCMCIA card to work using this hack, you may also ignore the [PCMCIA] notes later in this document.
We hope to provide a more elegant solution to this problem in a future NetBSD release.
The following is a walk-through of the steps you will take while
installed on your hard disk.
is a menu driven
installation system that allows for some freedom in doing the
Sometimes, questions will be asked and in many cases
the default answer will be displayed in brackets
after the question.
If you wish to stop the installation, you may press
at any time, but if you do, you'll have to begin the installation
process again from scratch by running the
program from the command prompt.
It is not necessary to reboot.
First, let's describe a quick install. The other sections of this document go into the installation procedure in more detail, but you may find that you do not need this. If you want detailed instructions, skip to the next section. This section describes a basic installation, using a CD-ROM install as an example.
When asked for a source filename, answer
for the first diskette and
for the second diskette.
When asked for a destination drive answer `a'.
# dd if=.../boot1.fs bs=18k of=/dev/rfd0a
.***********************************************. * NetBSD-2.0 Install System * * * *>a: Install NetBSD to hard disk * * b: Upgrade NetBSD on a hard disk * * c: Re-install sets or install additional sets * * d: Reboot the computer * * e: Utility menu * * x: Exit Install System * .***********************************************.
root, and set a password for that account. You are also advised to edit the file
/etc/rc.confto match your system needs.
/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc. Further information can be found on http://www.xfree86.org/.
Boot your machine. The boot loader will start, and will print a countdown and begin booting.
If the boot loader messages do not appear in a reasonable amount of time, you either have a bad boot floppy or a hardware problem. Try writing the install floppy image to a different disk, and using that.
If that doesn't work, try booting after disabling your CPU's internal and external caches (if any). If it still doesn't work, NetBSD probably can't be run on your hardware. This can probably be considered a bug, so you might want to report it. If you do, please include as many details about your system configuration as you can.
It will take a while to load the kernel
from the floppy,
probably around a minute or so, then, the kernel boot messages
will be displayed.
This may take a little while also, as
will be probing your system to discover which hardware devices are
You may want to read the
boot messages, to notice your disk's name and geometry.
Its name will be something like
and the geometry will be
printed on a line that begins with its name.
As mentioned above, you may need your disk's geometry when creating
You will also need to know the name, to tell
on which disk
The most important thing to know is that
name for your first IDE disk,
the second, etc.
is your first SCSI disk,
the second, etc.
Note that once the system has finished booting, you need not leave the floppy in the disk drive.
Once NetBSD has booted and printed all the boot messages, you will be presented with a welcome message and a main menu. It will also include instructions for using the menus.
If you will not use network operation during the installation, but you do want your machine to be configured for networking once it is installed, you should first go to the Utility menu, and select the Configure network option. If you only want to temporarily use networking during the installation, you can specify these parameters later. If you are not using the Domain Name System (DNS), you can give an empty response in reply to answers relating to this.
To start the installation, select Install NetBSD to hard disk from the main menu.
The first thing is to identify the disk on which you want to
will report a list of disks it finds
and ask you for your selection.
Depending on how many disks are found, you may get a different message.
You should see disk names like
sysinst next tries to figure out the real and BIOS geometry of your disk. It will present you with the values it found, if any, and will give you a chance to change them.
Next, depending on whether you are using a
you will either be asked for the type of disk
using or you will be asked if you want to specify a fake geometry
for your SCSI disk
The types of disk are
If you're installing on an
drive, you'll be asked if your disk supports automatic sector forwarding.
If you are
that it does, reply affirmatively.
Otherwise, the install program will automatically reserve space for
You will be asked if you want to use the entire disk or only part of the disk. If you decide to use the entire disk for NetBSD, it will be checked if there are already other systems present on the disk, and you will be asked to confirm whether you want to overwrite these.
If you want to use the entire disk for NetBSD, you can skip the following section and go to Editing the NetBSD disklabel.
First, you will be prompted to specify the units of size that you want to express the sizes of the partitions in. You can either pick megabytes, cylinders or sectors.
After this, you will be presented with the current values stored in the MBR, and will be given the opportunity to change, create or delete partitions. For each partition you can set the type, the start and the size. Setting the type to unused will delete a partition. You can also mark a partition as active, meaning that this is the one that the BIOS will start from at boot time.
Be sure to mark the partition you want to boot from as active!
After you are done editing the MBR, a sanity check will be done, checking for partitions that overlap. Depending on the BIOS capabilities of your machine and the parameters of the NetBSD partition you have specified, you may also be asked if you want to install newer bootcode in your MBR. If you have multiple operating systems on the disk that you are installing on, you will also be given the option to install a bootselector, that will allow you to pick the operating system to start up when your computer is (re-)started.
If everything is ok, you can go on to the next step, editing the NetBSD disklabel.
The partition table of the NetBSD part of a disk is called a disklabel. There are 4 layouts for the NetBSD part of the disk that you can pick from: Standard, Standard with X, Custom and Use Existing. The first two use a set of default values (that you can change) suitable for a normal installation, possibly including X. With the Custom option you can specify everything yourself. The last option uses the partition info already present on the disk.
You will be presented with the current layout of the
disklabel, and given a chance to change it.
For each partition, you can set the type, offset and size,
block and fragment size, and the mount point.
The type that
uses for normal file storage is called
A swap partition has a special type called
You can also specify a partition as type
This is useful if you share the disk with
is able to access the files on these partitions.
You can use the values from the MBR for the
part of the disk to specify the partition of type
(you don't have to do this now, you can always re-edit
the disklabel to add this once you have installed
to help you updating your disklabel with data from the MBR).
Some partitions in the disklabel have a fixed purpose.
eis the partition mounted on
/usr, but this is historical practice and not a fixed value.
You will then be asked to name your disk's disklabel. The default response will be ok for most purposes. If you choose to name it something different, make sure the name is a single word and contains no special characters. You don't need to remember this name.
You are now at the point of no return.
Nothing has been
written to your disk yet, but if you confirm that you want to
your hard drive will be modified.
If you are sure you want to proceed, enter
at the prompt.
The install program will now label your disk and make the file systems you specified. The file systems will be initialized to contain NetBSD bootstrapping binaries and configuration files. You will see messages on your screen from the various NetBSD disk preparation tools that are running. There should be no errors in this section of the installation. If there are, restart from the beginning of the installation process. Otherwise, you can continue the installation program after pressing the return key.
kern-GENERIC.tgzset file) on to your hard disk, for example by mounting the hard disk first, copying the
kern-GENERIC.tgzfile from floppy and unpacking it. Example:
# mount /dev/wd0a /mnt
# cd /mnt
repeat the following 3 steps until all kern.* files are there
# mount -t msdos /dev/fd0a /mnt2
# cp /mnt2/kern.* .
# umount /mnt2
# cat kern.* | tar zxpvf -
Then halt the machine using the halt command. Power the machine down, and re-insert all the PCMCIA devices. Remove any floppy from the floppy drive. Start the machine up. After booting NetBSD, you will be presented with the main sysinst menu. Choose the option to re-install sets. Wait for the file system checks that it will do to finish, and then proceed as described below.
The NetBSD distribution consists of a number of sets, that come in the form of gzipped tarfiles. A few sets must be installed for a working system, others are optional. At this point of the installation, you will be presented with a menu which enables you to choose from one of the following methods of installing the sets. Some of these methods will first load the sets on your hard disk, others will extract the sets directly.
For all these methods, the first step is making the sets available for extraction, and then do the actual installation. The sets can be made available in a few different ways. The following sections describe each of those methods. After reading the one about the method you will be using, you can continue to the section labeled `Extracting the distribution sets'.
To be able to install using ftp, you first need to configure
your network setup, if you haven't already at the start of
the install procedure.
will do this for you, asking you
if you want to use DHCP, and if not
to provide data like IP address, hostname, etc.
If you do not have name service set up for the machine that you
are installing on, you can just press
in answer to these questions, and DNS will not be used.
You will also be asked to specify the host that you want to transfer the sets from, the directory on that host, the account name and password used to log into that host using ftp, and optionally a proxy server to use. If you did not set up DNS when answering the questions to configure networking, you will need to specify an IP address instead of a hostname for the ftp server.
sysinst will proceed to transfer all the default set files from the remote site to your hard disk.
To be able to install using NFS, you first need to configure
your network setup, if you haven't already at the start of
the install procedure.
will do this for you, asking you
if you want to use DHCP, and if not
to provide data like IP address, hostname, etc.
If you do not have name service set up for the machine that you
are installing on, you can just press
in answer to these questions, and DNS will not be used.
You will also be asked to specify the host that you want to transfer the sets from, and the directory on that host that the files are in. This directory should be mountable by the machine you are installing on, i.e. correctly exported to your machine.
If you did not set up DNS when answering the questions to configure networking, you will need to specify an IP address instead of a hostname for the NFS server.
When installing from a CD-ROM, you will be asked to specify
the device name for your CD-ROM player
and the directory name on the CD-ROM where the distribution files are.
sysinst will then check if the files are indeed available in the specified location, and proceed to the actual extraction of the sets.
Because the installation sets are too big to fit on one floppy, the floppies are expected to be filled with the split set files. The floppies are expected to be in MS-DOS format. You will be asked for a directory where the sets should be reassembled. Then you will be prompted to insert the floppies containing the split sets. This process will continue until all the sets have been loaded from floppy.
In order to install from a local file system, you will
need to specify the device that the file system resides
the type of the file system,
and the directory on the specified file system where the sets are located.
will then check if it
can indeed access the sets at that location.
This option assumes that you have already done some preparation yourself. The sets should be located in a directory on a file system that is already accessible. sysinst will ask you for the name of this directory.
After the install sets containing the NetBSD distribution have been made available, you can either extract all the sets (a full installation), or only extract sets that you have selected. In the latter case, you will be shown the currently selected sets, and given the opportunity to select the sets you want. Some sets always need to be installed (kern, base) and etc they will not be shown in this selection menu.
Before extraction begins, you can elect to watch the files being extracted; the name of each file that is extracted will be shown. This can slow down the installation process considerably, especially on machines with slow graphics consoles or serial consoles.
After all the files have been extracted, all the necessary device node files will be created. If you have already configured networking, you will be asked if you want to use this configuration for normal operation. If so, these values will be installed in the network configuration files. The next menu will allow you to select the time zone that you're in, to make sure your clock has the right offset from UTC. Finally you will be asked to select a password encryption algorithm and can than set a password for the "root" account, to prevent the machine coming up without access restrictions.
Congratulations, you have successfully installed NetBSD2.0. You can now reboot the machine, and boot NetBSD from hard disk.
Once you've got the operating system running, there are a few things you need to do in order to bring the system into a properly configured state, with the most important ones described below.
If you or the installation software haven't done any configuration of
the system will drop you into single user mode on first reboot with the
and with the root file system
When the system asks you to choose a shell, simply press
to get to a
If you are asked for a terminal type, respond with
(or whatever is appropriate for your terminal type)
You may need to type one of the following commands to get your delete key
to work properly, depending on your keyboard:
# stty erase '^h'
# stty erase '^?'
At this point, you need to configure at least one file in the
You will need to mount your root file system read/write with:
# /sbin/mount -u -w /
Change to the
directory and take a look at the
Modify it to your tastes, making sure that you set
so that your changes will be enabled and a multi-user boot can
Default values for the various programs can be found in
where some in-line documentation may be found.
More complete documentation can be found in
directory is on a separate partition and you do not know how to use
you will have to mount your
partition to gain access to
Do the following:
# mount /usr
# export TERM=vt220
If you have
on a separate partition, you need to repeat that step for it.
After that, you can edit
When you have finished, type
at the prompt to
leave the single-user shell and continue with the multi-user boot.
Other values that need to be set in
for a networked environment are
furthermore add an
along the lines of
or, if you have
To enable proper hostname resolution, you will also want to add an
file or (if you are feeling a little more adventurous) run
for more information.
Instead of manually configuring network and naming service,
DHCP can be used by setting
Other files in
that may require modification or setting up include
After reboot, you can log in as
at the login prompt.
Unless you've set a password in
is no initial password.
If you're using the machine in a networked environment,
you should create an account for yourself (see below) and protect it and the
account with good passwords.
By default, root login from the network is disabled (even via
One way to become root over the network is to log in as a different
user that belongs to group
to become root.
Unless you have connected an unusual terminal device as the console
you can just press
when it prompts for
command to add accounts to your system.
if you want to edit the password database.
If you have installed the X Window System, look at the files in
You will need to set up a configuration file, see
for an example.
utilities can interactively create a first version of such a configuration
file for you.
and the XFree86 manual page for more information.
Don't forget to add
to your path in your shell's dot file so that you have access to the X binaries.
If you wish to install any of the software freely available for UNIX-like systems you are strongly advised to first check the NetBSD package system. This automatically handles any changes necessary to make the software run on NetBSD, retrieval and installation of any other packages on which the software may depend, and simplifies installation (and deinstallation), both from source and precompiled binaries.
2.0/i386/Allsubdir. You can install them with the following commands under
# PKG_PATH=ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/packages/2.0/i386/All # export PKG_PATH # pkg_add -v tcsh # pkg_add -v bash # pkg_add -v perl # pkg_add -v apache # pkg_add -v kde # pkg_add -v mozilla ...
If you are using
then replace the first two lines with the following:
# setenv PKG_PATH ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/packages/2.0/i386/All ...
The above commands will install the Tenex-csh and Bourne Again shell, the perl programming language , Apache web server, KDE desktop environment and the Mozilla web browser as well as all the packages they depend on.
/usr/pkgsrc(though other locations work fine), with the commands:
# mkdir /usr/pkgsrc
#( cd /usr/pkgsrc ; tar -zxpf - ) < pkgsrc.tar.gz
After extracting, see the
files in the extraction directory (e.g.
for more information.
/etc/mail/aliasesto forward root mail to the right place. Don't forget to run
/etc/mail/sendmail.cffile will almost definitely need to be adjusted; files aiding in this can be found in
/usr/share/sendmail. See the
READMEfile there for more information. If you prefer postfix as MTA, adjust
/etc/rc.localto run any local daemons you use.
/etcfiles are documented in section 5 of the manual; so just invoking
# man 5 filename
is likely to give you more information on these files.
The upgrade to NetBSD2.0 is a binary upgrade; it can be quite difficult to update the system from an earlier version by recompiling from source, primarily due to interdependencies in the various components.
To do the upgrade, you must have the boot floppy
You must also have at least the
binary distribution sets available, so that you can upgrade with them,
using one of the upgrade methods described above.
Finally, you must have sufficient disk space available to install the
Since files already installed on the system are overwritten in place,
you only need additional free space for files which weren't previously
installed or to account for growth of the sets between releases.
If you have a few megabytes free on each of your root
partitions, you should have enough space.
Since upgrading involves replacing the kernel, the boot blocks on your NetBSD partition, and most of the system binaries, it has the potential to cause data loss. You are strongly advised to back up any important data on the NetBSD partition or on another operating system's partition on your disk before beginning the upgrade process.
The upgrade procedure using the
tool is similar to an installation, but without the hard disk partitioning.
will attempt to merge the settings stored in your
directory with the new version of
Getting the binary
sets is done in the same manner as the installation procedure;
refer to the installation part of the document
for how to do this.
Also, some sanity checks are done, i.e.
file systems are checked before unpacking the sets.
After a new kernel has been copied to your hard disk, your
machine is a complete
However, that doesn't mean that you're finished with the upgrade process.
You will probably want to update the set of device
nodes you have in
If you've changed the contents of
by hand, you will need to be careful about this, but if
not, you can just cd into
and run the command:
# sh MAKEDEV all
Finally, you will want to delete old binaries that were part of the version of NetBSD that you upgraded from and have since been removed from the NetBSD distribution.
has switched its executable format from the old a.out format
to ELF, the now more commonly used and supported format.
Your old binaries will continue to work just fine.
The installation procedure will try to take the necessary steps to
The most important step is to move the old a.out shared libraries in
(if X was installed) to
where they will be automatically found if an older a.out binary
will use an existing
and / or
directory if available, and will create it (as a symbolic link to
If you already had a
directory, or a symbolic link by that name,
should rename it and tell you about it.
Users upgrading from previous versions of NetBSD may wish to bear the following problems and compatibility issues in mind when upgrading to NetBSD2.0.
mkdir /tmp/upgrade cd /tmp/upgrade pax -zrpe -f /path/to/etc.tgz ./etc/postinstall -s `pwd` check ./etc/postinstall -s `pwd` fix
Issues fixed by postinstall:
/etcneed upgrading. These include:
The following issues need to be resolved manually:
postfix(8)configuration files require upgrading.
cd /usr/share/examples/postfix cp post-install postfix-files postfix-script /etc/postfix postfix check
Documentation is available if you first install the manual
(documentation) are denoted by
Some examples of this are
The section numbers group the topics into several categories, but three are of primary interest: user commands are in section 1, file formats are in section 5, and administrative information is in section 8.
The man command is used to view the documentation on a topic, and is started by entering man[ section] topic. The brackets  around the section should not be entered, but rather indicate that the section is optional. If you don't ask for a particular section, the topic with the lowest numbered section name will be displayed. For instance, after logging in, enter
# man passwd
to read the documentation for
To view the documentation for
# man 5 passwd
If you are unsure of what man page you are looking for, enter
where subject-word is your topic of interest; a list of possibly related man pages will be displayed.
If you've got something to say, do so! We'd like your input. There are various mailing lists available via the mailing list server at majordomo@NetBSD.org. To get help on using the mailing list server, send mail to that address with an empty body, and it will reply with instructions.
There are various mailing lists set up to deal with comments and questions about this release. Please send comments to: netbsd-comments@NetBSD.org.
To report bugs, use the
command shipped with
and fill in as much information about the problem as you can.
Good bug reports include lots of details.
Additionally, bug reports can be sent by mail to:
is encouraged, however, because bugs reported with it
are entered into the
bugs database, and thus can't slip through
There are also port-specific mailing lists, to discuss aspects of each port of NetBSD. Use majordomo to find their addresses, or visit http://www.NetBSD.org/MailingLists/. If you're interested in doing a serious amount of work on a specific port, you probably should contact the `owner' of that port (listed below).
If you'd like to help with this effort, and have an idea as to how you could be useful, send us mail or subscribe to: netbsd-help@NetBSD.org.
As a favor, please avoid mailing huge documents or files to these mailing lists. Instead, put the material you would have sent up for FTP or WWW somewhere, then mail the appropriate list about it, or, if you'd rather not do that, mail the list saying you'll send the data to those who want it.
Keith Bostic Ralph Campbell Mike Karels Marshall Kirk McKusick
for their ongoing work on BSD systems, support, and encouragement.
AboveNet Communications, Inc. Advanced System Products, Inc. Alex Poylisher Alistair Crooks Andrew Brown Atsushi YOKOYAMA Avalon Computer Systems Bay Area Internet Solutions Ben Collver Bill Coldwell Bill Sommerfeld Brad Salai Brains Corporation, Japan Brian Carlstrom Brian McGroarty Canada Connect Corporation Castor Fu Central Iowa (Model) Railroad Charles Conn Charles D. Cranor Charles M. Hannum Chris Legrow Christer O. Andersson Christopher g. Demetriou Christos Zoulas Chuck Silvers Co-operative Research Centre for Enterprise Distributed Curt Sampson Dave Burgess Dave Rand David Brownlee Demon Internet, UK Derek Fellion Digital Equipment Corporation Distributed Processing Technology Douglas J. Trainor Easynet, UK Ed Braaten Edward Richley Eric and Rosemary Spahr Free Hardware Foundation Greg Gingerich Guenther Grau Harald Koerfgen Harry McDonald Heiko W. Rupp Herb Peyerl Hubert Feyrer Innovation Development Enterprises of America Internet Software Consortium James Chacon Jan Joris Vereijken Jason Birnschein Jason Brazile Jason R. Thorpe Jim Wise John Kohl Jonathan P. Kay Jordan K. Hubbard Kenneth Alan Hornstein Kevin Keith Woo Kimmo Suominen Krister Waldfridsson Lex Wennmacher LinuxFest Northwest Luke Mewburn MS Macro System GmbH, Germany Mark Brinicombe Mark S. Thomas Mason Loring Bliss Mattias Karlsson Michael Graff Michael L. Hitch Michael Richardson Michael Thompson Michael W. James Mike Price Neil J. McRae Noah M. Keiserman Norman R. McBride Numerical Aerospace Simulation Facility, NASA Ames Research Oliver Cahagne Perry E. Metzger Petri T. Koistinen Piermont Information Systems Inc. Precedence Technologies Ltd Ralph Campbell Reinoud Zandijk Richard Nelson Rob Windsor Ross Harvey SDF Public Access Unix, Inc. 501(c)(7) Salient Systems Inc. Scott Ellis Scott Kaplan Simon Burge Soren Jacobsen Soren Jorvang Steve Allen Steve Wadlow SunROOT# Project Ted Lemon Ted Spradley Thor Lancelot Simon Tim Law Tom Coulter Toru Nishimura VMC Harald Frank, Germany Warped Communications, Inc. Wasabi Systems Whitecross Database Systems Ltd. William Gnadt Worria Web Hosting
(If you're not on that list and should be, tell us! We probably were not able to get in touch with you, to verify that you wanted to be listed.)
(in alphabetical order)
|The NetBSD core group:|
|Frank van der Linden||fvdl@NetBSD.org|
|The portmasters (and their ports):|
|Frank van der Linden||fvdl@NetBSD.org||amd64|
|Frank van der Linden||fvdl@NetBSD.org||i386|
|Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino||itojun@NetBSD.org||evbsh3|
|Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino||itojun@NetBSD.org||mmeye|
|The NetBSD 2.0 Release Engineering team:|
|Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino||itojun@NetBSD.org|
|Robert V. Baron||rvb@NetBSD.org|
|Mason Loring Bliss||mason@NetBSD.org|
|D'Arcy J.M. Cain||darcy@NetBSD.org|
|Chris G. Demetriou||cgd@NetBSD.org|
|Tracy Di Marco White||gendalia@NetBSD.org|
|Jason R. Fink||jrf@NetBSD.org|
|Simon J. Gerraty||sjg@NetBSD.org|
|Brian C. Grayson||bgrayson@NetBSD.org|
|Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino||itojun@NetBSD.org|
|Charles M. Hannum||mycroft@NetBSD.org|
|Michael L. Hitch||mhitch@NetBSD.org|
|Christian E. Hopps||chopps@NetBSD.org|
|Love Hörnquist Åstrand||lha@NetBSD.org|
|Lonhyn T. Jasinskyj||lonhyn@NetBSD.org|
|Min Sik Kim||minskim@NetBSD.org|
|Daniel de Kok||daniel@NetBSD.org|
|Johnny C. Lam||jlam@NetBSD.org|
|Martin J. Laubach||mjl@NetBSD.org|
|Frank van der Linden||fvdl@NetBSD.org|
|Jared D. McNeill||jmcneill@NetBSD.org|
|Neil J. McRae||neil@NetBSD.org|
|Juan Romero Pardines||xtraeme@NetBSD.org|
|Julio M. Merino Vidal||jmmv@NetBSD.org|
|Jeremy C. Reed||reed@NetBSD.org|
|Tyler R. Retzlaff||rtr@NetBSD.org|
|Heiko W. Rupp||hwr@NetBSD.org|
|Karl Schilke (rAT)||rat@NetBSD.org|
|Thor Lancelot Simon||tls@NetBSD.org|
|Ian Lance Taylor||ian@NetBSD.org|
|Brian R. Gaekeemail@example.com|
All product names mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
The following notices are required to satisfy the license terms of the software that we have mentioned in this document:
This product includes software developed by the University of
California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.