About this Document............................................2 What is NetBSD?................................................3 Changes Between The NetBSD 2.0 and 2.1 Releases................3 Kernel......................................................3 Networking..................................................4 File system.................................................4 Security....................................................4 System administration and user tools........................4 Miscellaneous...............................................5 mac68k specific.............................................5 Changes Between The NetBSD 1.6 and 2.0 Releases................5 Kernel......................................................5 Networking..................................................6 File system.................................................6 Security....................................................6 System administration and user tools........................7 Miscellaneous...............................................7 Important notes about NetBSD 2.1...............................7 The Future of NetBSD...........................................8 Sources of NetBSD..............................................8 NetBSD 2.1 Release Contents....................................8 NetBSD/mac68k subdirectory structure.......................10 Binary distribution sets...................................10 NetBSD/mac68k System Requirements and Supported Devices.......12 Supported models...........................................12 Supported devices..........................................12 Unsupported models.........................................13 Known hardware issues with this release....................13 Getting the NetBSD System on to Useful Media..................14 Preparing your System for NetBSD installation.................15 Installing the NetBSD System (Sysinst Method).................16 Running the sysinst installation program...................16 Introduction............................................16 Possible hardware-specific issues.......................16 General.................................................17 Quick install...........................................17 Booting NetBSD..........................................19 Network configuration...................................20 Preparing a disk for Mac OS and NetBSD..................20 Installation drive selection and parameters.............20 Partitioning the disk...................................20 Preparing your hard disk................................22 Getting the distribution sets...........................23 Installation using ftp..................................23 Installation using NFS..................................23 Installation from CD-ROM................................23 Installation from Mac OS file systems...................24 Installation from an unmounted file system..............24 Installation from a local directory.....................24 Extracting the distribution sets........................24 Finalizing your installation............................24 Installing the NetBSD System (Traditional Method).............24 Preparing the file system(s)...............................25 Installing the files.......................................25 Installation of base files.................................26 Booting the system.........................................26 Post installation steps.......................................27 Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System................30 Compatibility Issues With Previous NetBSD Releases............31 Issues affecting an upgrade from NetBSD 1.6................31 Using online NetBSD documentation.............................31 Administrivia.................................................32 Thanks go to..................................................32 We are........................................................35 Legal Mumbo-Jumbo.............................................40 The End.......................................................46
This document describes the installation procedure for
It is available in four different formats titled
is one of
less(1)pager utility programs. This is the format in which the on-line man pages are generally presented.
You are reading the HTML version.
The NetBSD Operating System is a fully functional Open Source UNIX-like operating system derived from the University of California, Berkeley Networking Release 2 (Net/2), 4.4BSD-Lite, and 4.4BSD-Lite2 sources. NetBSD runs on fifty four different system architectures (ports), featuring seventeen machine architectures across fifteen distinct CPU families, and is being ported to more. The NetBSD2.1 release contains complete binary releases for many different system architectures. (A few ports are not fully supported at this time and are thus not part of the binary distribution. For information on them, please see the NetBSD web site at http://www.NetBSD.org/.)
NetBSD is a completely integrated system. In addition to its highly portable, high performance kernel, NetBSD features a complete set of user utilities, compilers for several languages, the X Window System, firewall software and numerous other tools, all accompanied by full source code.
NetBSD is a creation of the members of the Internet community. Without the unique cooperation and coordination the net makes possible, it's likely that NetBSD wouldn't exist.
The NetBSD2.1 release is the first functional update release of the NetBSD2 release branch. This provides numerous functional enhancements, including support for many new devices, hundreds of bug fixes, patches and updates to kernel subsystems, and many enhancements to the user environment. In addition, all of the security fixes and critical bug fixes from the NetBSD2.0.3 update are included as well. The result of these improvements is a stable operating system fit for production use that rivals most commercially available systems.
It is impossible to completely summarize all the changes that have gone in over the over nine months since the release of NetBSD2.0. Some highlights include:
wdc(4)drives now only downgrade modes due to actual CRC errors, and UDMA modes are downgraded more slowly.
pdcsata(4)driver was added, with support for the Promise SATA150 series of controllers, including RAID support.
ukyopon(4): Kyocera AIR-EDGE phone driver.
wdc(4)driver has been fixed for commands with opaque data structures.
statusnow works on big-endian hosts.
wm(4)fixed major performance issues with the i82547 Gig-E chip.
sk(4)improved chip identification and improved performance, and added support for the Belkin Gigabit Desktop Network PCI card.
hme(4)driver now supports Sun QFE boards on non-sparc hardware.
stge(4)Fix some bigendian issues, and some other issues. Now works on sparc64 with hardware checksums.
krb5(3)Support changing passwords in a Windows 2000 (or later) domain.
cgd(4)key destruction on unconfigure
ntpd(8)coredump if local system and NTP server did not have overlapping protocol family support (IPv4 vs. IPv6, for example) fixed.
pax(1)has a number of bugfixes and new features.
ifwatchd(8)has been fixed to call the CARRIER script if a link is already up during the initial interface scan.
grep(1)on empty or very large files.
umass(4)devices after boot.
NetBSD2.1 is the seventh major release of NetBSD for the m68k-based Macintosh.
For the mac68k port, NetBSD2.1 offers improved support for a variety of PowerBook models, many of which now support the built-in keyboard and display as a console. Please see the NetBSD/mac68k System Requirements and Supported Devices section for details.
There is still a lot of work to be done and help is welcomed. NetBSD2.1 on the mac68k platform is, as usual, also fully backward compatible with old NetBSD/mac68k binaries, so you don't need to recompile all of your local programs.
The NetBSD2.0 release provides numerous significant functional enhancements, including support for many new devices, integration of hundreds of bug fixes, new and updated kernel subsystems, and many user-land enhancements. The result of these improvements is a stable operating system fit for production use that rivals most commercially available systems.
It is impossible to completely summarize over two years of development that went into the NetBSD2.1 release. Some highlights include:
sysctl(9)was switched from a static binding to a dynamic implementation.
satalink(4)and move SATA support from other controllers into this along with adding support for new controllers.
ipf(8)has been upgraded to version 4.1.3.
tcp(4)now implements path MTU discovery blackhole detection (i.e. it will turn off path MTU discovery if the connection is losing).
wi(4)has support for Host-AP mode, allowing Intersil Prism2/2.5/3-based boards to be used to make an 802.11 Access Point.
ipf(8)has been added to
Kernel interfaces have continued to be refined, and more subsystems and device drivers are shared among the different ports. You can look for this trend to continue.
In order to retain the functionality that a newly installed system can send mail ``out of the box'', the default has changed so that sendmail will now start by default, and listen for host-local connections.
If this behaviour is not desired, you can either
/etc/mail/submit.cfto point to another host,
/etc/mailer.confto point to something else than sendmail, or
/etc/mail/submit.cf, and set the sendmail_suid variable to ``YES'' in
The NetBSD Foundation has been incorporated as a non-profit organization. Its purpose is to encourage, foster and promote the free exchange of computer software, namely the NetBSD Operating System. The foundation will allow for many things to be handled more smoothly than could be done with our previous informal organization. In particular, it provides the framework to deal with other parties that wish to become involved in the NetBSD Project.
The NetBSD Foundation will help improve the quality of NetBSD by:
We intend to begin narrowing the time delay between releases. Our ambition is to provide a full release every six to eight months.
We hope to support even more hardware in the future, and we have a rather large number of other ideas about what can be done to improve NetBSD.
We intend to continue our current practice of making the NetBSD-current development source available on a daily basis.
We intend to integrate free, positive changes from whatever sources submit them, providing that they are well thought-out and increase the usability of the system.
Above all, we hope to create a stable and accessible system, and to be
responsive to the needs and desires of
users, because it is for
and because of them that
The root directory of the NetBSD2.1 release is organized as follows:
In addition to the files and directories listed above, there is one directory per architecture, for each of the architectures for which NetBSD2.1 has a binary distribution.
The source distribution sets can be found in subdirectories of the
subdirectory of the distribution tree.
They contain the complete sources to the system.
The source distribution sets are as follows:
All the above source sets are located in the
subdirectory of the distribution tree.
The source sets are distributed as compressed tar files.
Except for the
set, which is traditionally unpacked into
all sets may be unpacked into
with the command:
#( cd / ; tar -zxpf - ) < set_name.tgz
In each of the source distribution set directories, there are files which contain the checksums of the files in the directory:
The MD5 digest is the safest checksum, followed by the POSIX checksum. The other two checksums are provided only to ensure that the widest possible range of system can check the integrity of the release files.
mac68ksubdirectory of the distribution:
.../NetBSD-2.1/mac68k/. It contains the following files and directories:
.morefile contains underlined text using the
more(1)conventions for indicating italic and bold display.
mac68k/binary/setssubdirectory of the NetBSD2.1 distribution tree, and are as follows:
/usr/include) and the various system libraries (except the shared libraries, which are included as part of the base set). This set also includes the manual pages for all of the utilities it contains, as well as the system call and library manual pages.
/etcand in several other places. This set must be installed if you are installing the system from scratch, but should not be used if you are upgrading.
/netbsd. You must install either this distribution set or kern-GENERICSBC.
/netbsd. You must install either this distribution set or kern-GENERIC.
groff(1), all related programs, and their manual pages.
NetBSD maintains its own set of sources for the X Window System in order to assure tight integration and compatibility. These sources are based on XFree86, and tightly track XFree86 releases. They are currently equivalent to XFree86 4.4.0. Binary sets for the X Window System are distributed with NetBSD. The sets are:
The mac68k binary distribution sets are distributed as gzipped tar files
named with the extension
The instructions given for extracting the source sets work equally
well for the binary sets, but it is worth noting that if you use that
method, the filenames stored in the sets are relative and therefore
the files are extracted
below the current directory.
Therefore, if you want to extract the binaries into your system, i.e.
replace the system binaries with them, you have to run the
command from the root directory (
) of your system.
Kernels suitable for booting from an AppleShare server may be found
subdirectory of the
These kernels are generally named something like
and can be booted as-is by the
Booter utility, if desired.
Please note that these kernels are simply gzipped and are not in tar archives.
based utilities necessary for installing and running
be found in the
subdirectory of the
The important files in this directory are as follows:
These files are all BinHexed, self-extracting archives.
If you need them, the sources for these utilities are in the
This utility is used only in a Traditional method installation.
NetBSD/mac68k 2.1 runs on several of the older Macintosh computers. About 4 MB of RAM is sufficient to boot a stripped-down custom kernel, and a subset of the system can be squeezed onto a 40 MB hard disk with considerable creativity and persistence. However, an 80 MB disk should be considered a practical minimum, and to do anything more interesting than booting at least 8 MB of RAM and more disk space is recommended. About 180 MB will be necessary to install all of the NetBSD/mac68k 2.1 binary system distribution sets (note that this does not count swap space!). You can drop this to 150 MB if you choose not to install the binary X11 distribution sets. Much more disk space is required to install the source and objects as well; a complete source distribution, including X11, consumes nearly 1 GB of storage.
Please note that to install NetBSD/mac68k 2.1 using the sysinst method, your system must have a minimum of 6 MB of RAM and 60 MB of available disk space (i.e. not part of an in-use HFS partition).
If your 68030 system is not listed above, it may be because of a problem with accessing onboard video, and it may still work with a serial console. Some of the known ones in this category:
If your 68LC040 system is not listed above, it is due to a problem with floating point emulation (FPE) for this type of processor. Machines in this category include:
This machine has unusual custom chips for the ADB and serial interfaces which make support for it difficult. Work is in progress on this, though.
These machines have I/O processor chips for their ADB interfaces similar to those used in the IIfx and thus face similar support problems. Note that you can use a serial console on these systems.
This is a separate effort from the mac68k port. PowerMacs use hardware that is often fairly different from that of the mac68k port. If you are interested in this, you might want to take a look at the new NetBSD/macppc port: http://www.NetBSD.org/Ports/macppc/index.html
Due to oddities of the Macintosh hardware interrupt priority scheme, NetBSD/mac68k keeps very poor time. Under a high interrupt load (e.g. SCSI or serial port activity) , a machine can lose several minutes per hour. A consequence of this problem is that attempting to run ntpd is generally rather pointless.
The NetBSD/mac68k SCSI drivers are not quite as robust as their Mac OS counterparts. Symptoms of these problems are that some SCSI disks will not work under NetBSD that work fine under Mac OS. Other problems include occasional file system corruption with some types of drives and the general unreliability of removable SCSI media. Keep in mind that there are no clear patterns with these problems, and they do not appear to affect the majority of users.
There are currently two installation methods available for initial installation of NetBSD on Apple Macintosh 68000-based systems. Neither supports all installation media types at this time, so the one you select must be compatible with the media you have available on your system.
The Traditional method of installation is currently supported from the local
Macintosh hard drive, from a CD-ROM, or from an AppleShare volume
(however, you may ugrade a system from within NetBSD; see the
Upgrading a previously-installed NetBSD System
section for more details).
If you are installing from a local hard drive, this means that you'll need
at least enough room for the largest file that you will have to install.
This is the 15.2 MB
file. There has been talk of allowing an install
from split files. If you have the time, desire, and knowledge, please feel
free to add that functionality.
If the install is being done from an AppleShare-mounted volume, the NetBSD/mac68k Installer must be in the same folder as the binary distribution sets.
Each distribution file is in raw archive format.
You will also need to collect the
installation tools from the
mac68k/installation/misc subdirectory of the
Booter. These three are
in BinHexed, self-extracting archives as Mkfs.sea.hqx, Installer.sea.hqx,
and Booter.sea.hqx, respectively. Extract them as you would any other
No matter which installation method you use, there is some planning and preparation that is required beforehand. First and foremost, before beginning the installation process, make sure you have a reliable backup of any data on your hard disk that you wish to keep. Mistakes in partitioning your hard disk may lead to data loss.
NetBSD/mac68k uses the same disk mapping scheme as Mac OS: the Apple Disk Partition Map. This permits both systems to reside on the same disk, but introduces some installation problems unique to the Macintosh. There are very few, if any, reliable ways to reduce the size of an existing Mac OS disk partition, so partitioning a disk that currently contains Mac OS will almost always require a backup and reload step under Mac OS.
If you are using the sysinst method of installation you will be able to do most, if not all, of your disk partitioning during the install process. Partitioning the disk with sysinst will destroy any partition that is resized, deleted, converted, or designated for use by NetBSD. All space not planned to be used for Mac OS HFS partitions may be used by NetBSD and can be sub-divided by the sysinst process. This space may be defined within one or more existing disk partitions of any type, including HFS partitions that are no longer needed for Mac OS. However it is best if this space is physically contiguous on the disk as sysinst is not capable of merging non-contiguous disk partitions. If you are using the sysinst method and have sufficient disk space in one or more disk partitions you should skip forward to the section labeled Installing the NetBSD System (Sysinst Method) in this document.
If you are using the Traditional method of installation you must use a disk partitioning utility to designate the different partitions you will want in your final NetBSD configuration. It is not necessary to create NetBSD (or AU/X) type partitions at this stage; the Mkfs utility can convert a partition of any type to one usable for NetBSD.
If disk partitioning is required because you've selected the Traditional method of installation, or because disk space needs to be freed up for use for the sysinst method of installation, follow the directions in the remainder of this section.
Find your favorite disk partitioning utility. Any formatter capable of partitioning a SCSI disk should work. Some of the ones that have been tried and seem to work are:
Apple's HD SC Setup is probably the easiest to use and the most commonly available. Instructions for patching HD SC Setup so that it will recognize non-Apple drives is available at:
First, you need to choose a drive on which to install NetBSD. Try to pick a drive with a low SCSI target number (or "SCSI ID"), especially if you are likely to add or remove drives to your SCSI chain in the future.
Second, decide how you want to set up your partitions. At minimum, you
need a partition to hold the
installation (the root partition --
partition to serve as swap space. You may choose to use more than one partition
to hold the installation. This allows you to separate the more vital
portions of the file system (such as the kernel and the
directory) from the more volatile parts of the file system.
Typical setups place the
directory on a separate partition from the root partition
can be fairly small while the
partition should be fairly large.
If you plan to use this machine as a server, you may also want a separate
Once you have decided how to lay out your partitions, you need to calculate
how much space to allocate to each partition. A minimal install of
etc.tgz, and either
should just fit in a 56 MB partition.
For a full installation, you should allocate at least 180 MB (150 MB if you
do not wish to install the X sets). A general rule of thumb for sizing
the swap partition is to allocate twice as much swap space as you have
real memory. Having your swap + real memory total at least 20 MB is also
a good idea. Systems that will be heavily used or that are low on real
memory should have more swap space allocated. Systems that will be only
lightly used or have a very large amount of real memory can get away
Keep in mind that NetBSD currently requires Mac OS in order to boot, so it is likely that you will want to keep at least a minimal install of Mac OS around on an HFS partition for this purpose. The size of this partition may vary depending on the size requirements for the version of Mac OS you are using. Of course, if you have Mac OS on another hard drive or can boot from a floppy, feel free to dedicate the entire drive to NetBSD.
Next, use your favorite partitioning utility to make partitions of the
necessary sizes. You can use any type of partition, but partitions of type
might save you some confusion in the future.
You are now set to install
on your hard drive.
Using sysinst, installing NetBSD is a relatively easy process. You still should read this document and have it in hand when doing the installation process. This document tries to be a good guideline for the installation and as such covers many details for the sake of completeness. Do not let this discourage you; the install program is not hard to use.
The SCSI driver used in the kernel on many older Macintosh systems is, by default, the ncrscsi driver. It contains a recognized but as yet unfixed bug that affects some disk drive/controller combinations, usually Quantum disks. Under heavy load these systems may hang or corrupt the file system; or, you may experience frequent Segmentation fault and Illegal instruction errors that may or may not be consistently repeatable. This latter condition is particularly prevalent on systems with minimal RAM installed.
If either of these problems occur on your system you are advised to use the SBC variants of the Kernel and Installation Kernel. However, be aware that this issue does not affect e.g. Centris or Quadra systems.
NetBSD has known but unresolved problems running on the 68LC040 processor, the variant of the 68040 that does not contain the floating point unit (FPU). The kernel is thus forced to emulate the missing operations in software. Unfortunately the 68LC040 processor has a design problem that causes the emulation to fail intermittently. We hope to provide a solution for this issue in a future NetBSD release.
Software emulation of floating point operations is not a problem on the 68020 and 68030 processors.
The following is a walk-through of the steps you will take while
installed on your hard disk.
is a menu driven
installation system that allows for some freedom in doing the
Sometimes, questions will be asked and in many cases
the default answer will be displayed in brackets
after the question.
If you wish to stop the installation, you may press
at any time, but if you do, you'll have to begin the installation
process again from scratch by running the
program from the command prompt.
It is not necessary to reboot.
First, let's describe a quick install. The other sections of this document go into the installation procedure in more detail, but you may find that you do not need this. If you want detailed instructions, skip to the next section. This section describes a basic installation, using a CD-ROM install as an example.
netbsd-INSTALLSBC.gz. Close the window using the Close button.
The main menu will be displayed.
.***********************************************. * NetBSD-2.0 Install System * * * *>a: Install NetBSD to hard disk * * b: Upgrade NetBSD on a hard disk * * c: Re-install sets or install additional sets * * d: Reboot the computer * * e: Utility menu * * x: Exit Install System * .***********************************************.
root, and set a password for that account. You are also advised to edit the file
/etc/rc.confto match your system needs.
/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/doc. Further information can be found on http://www.xfree86.org/.
Prior to attempting to boot NetBSD/mac68k verify that all the following are done:
It is probably best to boot your machine with all extensions turned off .
You can do this by booting into Mac OS with the
key held down.
You may have to restart your Macintosh for changes to take effect before
Double-click on the NetBSD/mac68k Booter icon to start the application. Select Booting from the Options menu. Select the Kernel Location to be from Mac OS with the filename corresponding to the name of the Installation Kernel you are using. Typically this will be netbsd-INSTALL.gz.
If you haven't already put your Macintosh into B&W mode, select the Monitor Options from the Options menu and check the box for B&W mode.
Try booting NetBSD by selecting Boot Now from the Options menu.
If the system does not come up, send mail to port-mac68k@NetBSD.org describing your software, your hardware, and as complete a description of the problem as you can. As an alternative, try using the Traditional method of installation described in the next section.
Once NetBSD has booted and printed all the boot messages, you will be presented with a welcome message and a main menu. It will also include instructions for using the menus.
If you will not use network operation during the installation, but you do want your machine to be configured for networking once it is installed, you should first go to the Utility menu, and select the Configure network option. If you only want to temporarily use networking during the installation, you can specify these parameters later. If you are not using the Domain Name System (DNS), you can give an empty response in reply to answers relating to this.
sysinst can manipulate the Apple Disk Partition Map allowing you to partition your disk for use with NetBSD. It does not support resizing existing Mac OS HFS disk partitions. If there is insufficient Free space on the disk to support an installation of NetBSD you will need to backup, repartition and restore your existing Mac OS partitions before proceeding. You may choose to use a Traditional method of creating disk partitions for NetBSD if you wish. They can still be used by sysinst for a NetBSD installation.
To start the installation, select Install NetBSD to hard disk from the main menu. To start the installation, select the menu option in install NetBSD from the main menu.
The first thing is to identify the disk on which you want to
will report a list of disks it finds
and ask you for your selection.
Depending on how many disks are found, you may get a different message.
You should see disk names like
sysinst next tries to figure out how the selected volume has been partitioned. It does this by reading the Apple Disk Partition Map from the disk. If the disk does not have a Partition Map, sysinst will give you the option of writing one, but doing so will not make the disk a Mac OS bootable volume. You will have the option of creating HFS partitions that may be subsequently initialized and used under Mac OS though.
You will be asked if you want to use the entire disk or only part of the disk. If you decide to use the entire disk for NetBSD, it will be checked if there are already other systems present on the disk, and you will be asked to confirm whether you want to overwrite these.
The Apple Disk Partition Map is used to create an in-core map of the disk called the disklabel. A minimum of two NetBSD partitions will be required, one for root and one for swap. Up to eight partitions may be used by NetBSD. Up to 32 partitions may exist on the disk which can be any combination of Mac OS HFS, Free, Scratch and NetBSD partitions, although only the first eight which meet the needs of NetBSD will be seen and mapped to the NetBSD disklabel.
Some partitions in the disklabel have a fixed purpose. Partition 'a' is always the root partition, 'b' is the swap partition and 'c' is the entire disk. Partitions 'd' through 'h' are available for other use. Traditionally, 'g' is the partition mounted on the /usr directory, but this is historical practice, not a fixed value.
You will be presented with the current layout of the disk as seen by NetBSD, and given a change to change it. (Even though NetBSD can only use the first eight qualified partitions, all partitions found on the disk will be displayed.) The partitions found on the disk will be shown in the top section of the display. Each will be identified with the name assigned by NetBSD, the current size, offset, type, use and mount point. The partition currently being modified will be highlighted in inverse video. The bottom part of the display will list the operations which may be performed on the selected (highlighted) partition. The options are:
This highlights the next partition in the upper display list and makes it the current one selected for manipulation.
This changes the type assigned to the partition. A partition may be assigned for use as a NetBSD Root, SWAP, Usr, or Root&Usr; it may be assigned for use as a Mac OS HFS partition; a Scratch (for later reassignment); or a Free partition. Free partitions which are physically adjacent to each other will be collapsed into a single Free partition.
This designates the
file system mount point for the partition, and gets transferred into
the /etc/fstab definition so
knows where to mount the file system on subsequent boots.
The option only applies to
Root, Usr, Root&Usr or Mac OS HFS partitions, although currently HFS access
is not supported without optional software components.
A common set of predefined mount points (/usr, /home, /var, /tmp or None)
will be presented to you to assist you in defining the most commonly used,
but you may enter you own names if you choose.
Selecting "None" will clear the mount point name and keep the partition
from being defined in the resulting
This option divides the selected partition into two separate partitions if there is space available in the Disk Partition Map. You will be prompted for the size of the first segment and the remaining portion will be allocated to the second segment. The first segment will be designated as a Scratch type, and the second will be designated as a Free type. To clear a split, or remerge two adjacent partitions into a single one, change both to be Free types. sysinst will merge them and update the display.
This is the primary option used to partition the disk since it allows you to sub-divide the selected partition into two partitions. Changing the types associated with the resulting two parts, or splitting the second part further sub-divides the original partition.
These entries allow you to scroll the upper display if more than eight partitions currently exist on the disk.
This option reviews the partition's size and starting address and fixes the values if they overlap any adjacent partition. This is primarily a debugging option and shouldn't be necessary during a normal installation. However, some 3rd party disk formatters have been known to create bogus entries in the Apple Disk Partition Map, and this option can aid is repairing these entries.
This option completes the disk partitioning and returns you to the previous installation menu. At that point you will be given one last opportunity to bail out before committing the changes to the Disk Partition Map recorded on the disk.
The simplest method of approaching disk partitioning with sysinst is to convert everything that can be used for NetBSD into a Free type partition. This will allow sysinst to collapse and merge all the available space. Then cycle through the Select, Split, Select, Change, and Set Mount Point options for each of the NetBSD partitions that are desired. Since NetBSD/mac68k has a very specific mount order for partitions during system boot, it is best to create your NetBSD partitions in the following order: Root, SWAP, Usr where the partitions will be mounted in order on 'a', 'b', 'g', 'd', 'e', 'f', and 'h'.
At least one Root or Root&Usr is required, and a SWAP partition is highly desirable. As a general rule you will need twice as much swap space as you have RAM, more if you plan on running X, Web applications or doing heavy development in a multi-user environment. The Root partition, if it is separate from your Usr, usually requires about 24 MB.
If multiple Root partitions are defined, the second is usually mounted on /altusr by default. NetBSD/mac68k automatically mounts all Root partitions after the first as Usr type partitions. However, it is best to be very specific about mount points and partition type and use.
You will then be asked to name your disk's disklabel. The default response will be ok for most purposes. If you choose to name it something different, make sure the name is a single word and contains no special characters. You don't need to remember this name.
You are now at the point of no return.
Nothing has been
written to your disk yet, but if you confirm that you want to
your hard drive will be modified.
If you are sure you want to proceed, enter
at the prompt.
The install program will now label your disk and make the file systems you specified. The file systems will be initialized to contain NetBSD bootstrapping binaries and configuration files. You will see messages on your screen from the various NetBSD disk preparation tools that are running. There should be no errors in this section of the installation. If there are, restart from the beginning of the installation process. Otherwise, you can continue the installation program after pressing the return key.
The NetBSD distribution consists of a number of sets, that come in the form of gzipped tarfiles. A few sets must be installed for a working system, others are optional. At this point of the installation, you will be presented with a menu which enables you to choose from one of the following methods of installing the sets. Some of these methods will first load the sets on your hard disk, others will extract the sets directly.
For all these methods, the first step is making the sets available for extraction, and then do the actual installation. The sets can be made available in a few different ways. The following sections describe each of those methods. After reading the one about the method you will be using, you can continue to the section labeled `Extracting the distribution sets'.
To be able to install using ftp, you first need to configure
your network setup, if you haven't already at the start of
the install procedure.
will do this for you, asking you
if you want to use DHCP, and if not
to provide data like IP address, hostname, etc.
If you do not have name service set up for the machine that you
are installing on, you can just press
in answer to these questions, and DNS will not be used.
You will also be asked to specify the host that you want to transfer the sets from, the directory on that host, the account name and password used to log into that host using ftp, and optionally a proxy server to use. If you did not set up DNS when answering the questions to configure networking, you will need to specify an IP address instead of a hostname for the ftp server.
sysinst will proceed to transfer all the default set files from the remote site to your hard disk.
To be able to install using NFS, you first need to configure
your network setup, if you haven't already at the start of
the install procedure.
will do this for you, asking you
if you want to use DHCP, and if not
to provide data like IP address, hostname, etc.
If you do not have name service set up for the machine that you
are installing on, you can just press
in answer to these questions, and DNS will not be used.
You will also be asked to specify the host that you want to transfer the sets from, and the directory on that host that the files are in. This directory should be mountable by the machine you are installing on, i.e. correctly exported to your machine.
If you did not set up DNS when answering the questions to configure networking, you will need to specify an IP address instead of a hostname for the NFS server.
When installing from a CD-ROM, you will be asked to specify
the device name for your CD-ROM player
and the directory name on the CD-ROM where the distribution files are.
sysinst will then check if the files are indeed available in the specified location, and proceed to the actual extraction of the sets.
NetBSD/mac68k does not currently have in-kernel support for Mac OS HFS/HFS+ or AppleShare filesystems. sysinst therefore can not access the file sets if they are on these filesystems.
In order to install from a local file system, you will
need to specify the device that the file system resides
the type of the file system,
and the directory on the specified file system where the sets are located.
will then check if it
can indeed access the sets at that location.
This option assumes that you have already done some preparation yourself. The sets should be located in a directory on a file system that is already accessible. sysinst will ask you for the name of this directory.
After the install sets containing the NetBSD distribution have been made available, you can either extract all the sets (a full installation), or only extract sets that you have selected. In the latter case, you will be shown the currently selected sets, and given the opportunity to select the sets you want. Some sets always need to be installed (kern, base) and etc they will not be shown in this selection menu.
Before extraction begins, you can elect to watch the files being extracted; the name of each file that is extracted will be shown. This can slow down the installation process considerably, especially on machines with slow graphics consoles or serial consoles.
After all the files have been extracted, all the necessary device node files will be created. If you have already configured networking, you will be asked if you want to use this configuration for normal operation. If so, these values will be installed in the network configuration files. The next menu will allow you to select the time zone that you're in, to make sure your clock has the right offset from UTC. Finally you will be asked to select a password encryption algorithm and can than set a password for the "root" account, to prevent the machine coming up without access restrictions.
Congratulations, you have successfully installed NetBSD2.1. You can now reboot the machine, and boot NetBSD from hard disk.
/) and NetBSD Usr for all the other partitions. You should select NetBSD Swap for the swap partition.
When you have finished converting each partition, select each partition and click on the Format button. You will now be asked for a bunch of parameters for the hard drive and the file system. Usually, you can just take the defaults. If you are installing onto removable media (e.g. a Zip, Jaz, or Syquest), please see the FAQ. Note that although this dialog only has the OK button, you are not committed, yet. Once you get the values you want, press the OK button. A dialog will be presented at this point with two options: Format and Cancel. If you choose Cancel, nothing will be written to your drive. If you choose Format, the program will proceed to make a file system.
Mkfs is not a well-behaved Macintosh application. It will not allow any other tasks to run while it does (cooperative multitasking at its best). When it's finished, the program will put up a dialog to ask if you have scanned the output for any error messages. Usually there won't have been any errors, but do scan the output to make sure. Simply click on the I Read It button and the program will quit.
Repeat as necessary for any extra partitions that you wish to make file systems on. Note that you do not need a file system on your swap partition.
When you are finished, click on the Done button and choose Quit from the File menu to exit Mkfs.
Double-click on the Installer icon to start it up. The Installer will present the same SCSI-ID menu that Mkfs did. Select the same SCSI-ID (SCSI target number) that you did for Mkfs - i.e., the one you are installing NetBSD on.
If you are installing onto a single root partition
proceed to the
Installation of base files
If you have not created file systems for
and any other file systems, go back to
Preparing the file system(s)
When you started the Installer, it mounted your root partition
Just before it printed
Mounting partition 'A' as /
it printed lines like:
sd1 at scsi ID 5
This means that the device for SCSI target 5 ("SCSI ID 5") is
are signified by a trailing letter. For instance,
the root partition
of the second SCSI disk in the chain, and
would be the first Usr partition on the first SCSI disk.
You will need to know the proper device to mount the remaining partition(s) by hand:
# mkdir path
E.g. for the
# mkdir /usr
# mount device path
For example, if you wish to mount a
partition from the first SCSI disk
/usr, you would type:
# mount /dev/sd0g /usr
kern-GENERICSBC.tgz, and any other sets you wish to install at this time (see the NetBSD 2.1 Release Contents for information about what's in each set). The Installer will print out the filename of each file as it is installed, and will take quite some time to install everything (the base package alone can take over two hours on a slow hard drive).
As is the case with Mkfs, this is not a particularly well-behaved Macintosh application and the machine will be completely tied up while the installation takes place.
At some point after installing the base set, select the
option from the
menu if you have not already done
so. This will create a bunch of device nodes for you and will
create your initial
The Installer program also has an
option to give you a mini-shell. Do not use this unless you are
sure know what you are doing.
When you are finished installing all of the sets you wish to install, exit the Installer by choosing Quit from the File menu.
It is probably best to boot your machine with all extensions turned off . You can do this by booting into Mac OS with the SHIFT key held down. You may have to restart your Macintosh for changes to take effect before proceeding.
Double-click on the NetBSD/mac68k Booter icon to start the application. Select Booting from the Options menu. Check that all of the items in the resulting dialog look sane - especially the SCSI target number. If not, correct them to your preference (the SCSI target number, or "SCSI ID", should be the only thing you need to change). When you are satisfied with your choices, try booting NetBSD by selecting Boot Now from the Options menu.
If you wish to save your preferences, choose Save Options from the File menu before Booting (your preferences will not be saved if you forget to do this).
If the system does not come up, send mail to port-mac68k@NetBSD.org describing your software, your hardware, and as complete a description of the problem as you can.
If the system does come up, congratulations, you have successfully installed
Once you've got the operating system running, there are a few things you need to do in order to bring the system into a properly configured state, with the most important ones described below.
If you or the installation software haven't done any configuration of
the system will drop you into single user mode on first reboot with the
and with the root file system
When the system asks you to choose a shell, simply press
to get to a
If you are asked for a terminal type, respond with
(or whatever is appropriate for your terminal type)
You may need to type one of the following commands to get your delete key
to work properly, depending on your keyboard:
# stty erase '^h'
# stty erase '^?'
At this point, you need to configure at least one file in the
You will need to mount your root file system read/write with:
# /sbin/mount -u -w /
Change to the
directory and take a look at the
Modify it to your tastes, making sure that you set
so that your changes will be enabled and a multi-user boot can
Default values for the various programs can be found in
where some in-line documentation may be found.
More complete documentation can be found in
directory is on a separate partition and you do not know how to use
you will have to mount your
partition to gain access to
Do the following:
# mount /usr
# export TERM=vt220
If you have
on a separate partition, you need to repeat that step for it.
After that, you can edit
When you have finished, type
at the prompt to
leave the single-user shell and continue with the multi-user boot.
Other values that need to be set in
for a networked environment are
furthermore add an
where your on-board, NuBus or PDS interface may be
or, if you have
To enable proper hostname resolution, you will also want to add an
file or (if you are feeling a little more adventurous) run
for more information.
Instead of manually configuring network and naming service,
DHCP can be used by setting
Other files in
that may require modification or setting up include
After reboot, you can log in as
at the login prompt.
Unless you've set a password in
is no initial password.
If you're using the machine in a networked environment,
you should create an account for yourself (see below) and protect it and the
account with good passwords.
By default, root login from the network is disabled (even via
One way to become root over the network is to log in as a different
user that belongs to group
to become root.
Unless you have connected an unusual terminal device as the console
you can just press
when it prompts for
command to add accounts to your system.
if you want to edit the password database.
If you have installed the X Window System, look at the files in
Don't forget to add
to your path in your shell's dot file so that you have access to the X binaries.
If you wish to install any of the software freely available for UNIX-like systems you are strongly advised to first check the NetBSD package system. This automatically handles any changes necessary to make the software run on NetBSD, retrieval and installation of any other packages on which the software may depend, and simplifies installation (and deinstallation), both from source and precompiled binaries.
2.1/mac68k/Allsubdir. You can install them with the following commands under
# PKG_PATH=ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/packages/2.1/mac68k/All # export PKG_PATH # pkg_add -v tcsh # pkg_add -v bash # pkg_add -v perl # pkg_add -v apache # pkg_add -v kde # pkg_add -v mozilla ...
If you are using
then replace the first two lines with the following:
# setenv PKG_PATH ftp://ftp.NetBSD.org/pub/NetBSD/packages/2.1/mac68k/All ...
The above commands will install the Tenex-csh and Bourne Again shell, the Perl programming language, Apache web server, KDE desktop environment and the Mozilla web browser as well as all the packages they depend on.
/usr/pkgsrc(though other locations work fine), with the commands:
# mkdir /usr/pkgsrc
#( cd /usr/pkgsrc ; tar -zxpf - ) < pkgsrc.tar.gz
After extracting, see the
files in the extraction directory (e.g.
for more information.
/etc/mail/aliasesto forward root mail to the right place. Don't forget to run
/etc/mail/sendmail.cffile will almost definitely need to be adjusted; files aiding in this can be found in
/usr/share/sendmail. See the
READMEfile there for more information. If you prefer postfix as MTA, adjust
/etc/rc.localto run any local daemons you use.
/etcfiles are documented in section 5 of the manual; so just invoking
# man 5 filename
is likely to give you more information on these files.
The upgrade to NetBSD2.1 is a binary upgrade; it can be quite difficult to update the system from an earlier version by recompiling from source, primarily due to interdependencies in the various components.
To do the upgrade, you must boot from the installer kernel using one of
the methods described above.
You must also have at least the
binary distribution sets available, so that you can upgrade with them,
using one of the upgrade methods described above.
Finally, you must have sufficient disk space available to install the
Since files already installed on the system are overwritten in place,
you only need additional free space for files which weren't previously
installed or to account for growth of the sets between releases.
If you have a few megabytes free on each of your root
partitions, you should have enough space.
Since upgrading involves replacing the kernel, the boot blocks on your NetBSD partition, and most of the system binaries, it has the potential to cause data loss. You are strongly advised to back up any important data on the NetBSD partition or on another operating system's partition on your disk before beginning the upgrade process.
The upgrade procedure using the
tool is similar to an installation, but without the hard disk partitioning.
will attempt to merge the settings stored in your
directory with the new version of
Getting the binary
sets is done in the same manner as the installation procedure;
refer to the installation part of the document
for how to do this.
Also, some sanity checks are done, i.e.
file systems are checked before unpacking the sets.
After a new kernel has been copied to your hard disk, your
machine is a complete
However, that doesn't mean that you're finished with the upgrade process.
You will probably want to update the set of device
nodes you have in
If you've changed the contents of
by hand, you will need to be careful about this, but if
not, you can just cd into
and run the command:
# sh MAKEDEV all
Finally, you will want to delete old binaries that were part of the version of NetBSD that you upgraded from and have since been removed from the NetBSD distribution.
has switched its executable format from the old a.out format
to ELF, the now more commonly used and supported format. Your old
binaries will continue to work just fine. The installation procedure
will try to take the necessary steps to accomplish this. The most
important step is to move the old a.out shared libraries in
(if X was installed) to
where they will be automatically found if an older a.out binary
is executed. Sysinst will use an existing
and / or
directory if available, and will create it (as a symbolic link to
If you already had a
directory, or a symbolic link by that name, sysinst should rename it
and tell you about it.
Users upgrading from previous versions of NetBSD may wish to bear the following problems and compatibility issues in mind when upgrading to NetBSD2.1.
mkdir /tmp/upgrade cd /tmp/upgrade pax -zrpe -f /path/to/etc.tgz ./etc/postinstall -s `pwd` check ./etc/postinstall -s `pwd` fix
Issues fixed by postinstall:
/etcneed upgrading. These include:
The following issues need to be resolved manually:
postfix(8)configuration files require upgrading.
cd /usr/share/examples/postfix cp post-install postfix-files postfix-script /etc/postfix postfix check
Documentation is available if you first install the manual
(documentation) are denoted by
Some examples of this are
The section numbers group the topics into several categories, but three are of primary interest: user commands are in section 1, file formats are in section 5, and administrative information is in section 8.
The man command is used to view the documentation on a topic, and is started by entering man[ section] topic. The brackets  around the section should not be entered, but rather indicate that the section is optional. If you don't ask for a particular section, the topic with the lowest numbered section name will be displayed. For instance, after logging in, enter
# man passwd
to read the documentation for
To view the documentation for
# man 5 passwd
If you are unsure of what man page you are looking for, enter
where subject-word is your topic of interest; a list of possibly related man pages will be displayed.
If you've got something to say, do so! We'd like your input. There are various mailing lists available via the mailing list server at majordomo@NetBSD.org. To get help on using the mailing list server, send mail to that address with an empty body, and it will reply with instructions.
There are various mailing lists set up to deal with comments and questions about this release. Please send comments to: netbsd-comments@NetBSD.org.
To report bugs, use the
command shipped with
and fill in as much information about the problem as you can.
Good bug reports include lots of details.
Additionally, bug reports can be sent by mail to:
is encouraged, however, because bugs reported with it
are entered into the
bugs database, and thus can't slip through
There are also port-specific mailing lists, to discuss aspects of each port of NetBSD. Use majordomo to find their addresses, or visit http://www.NetBSD.org/MailingLists/. If you're interested in doing a serious amount of work on a specific port, you probably should contact the `owner' of that port (listed below).
If you'd like to help with this effort, and have an idea as to how you could be useful, send us mail or subscribe to: netbsd-help@NetBSD.org.
As a favor, please avoid mailing huge documents or files to these mailing lists. Instead, put the material you would have sent up for FTP or WWW somewhere, then mail the appropriate list about it, or, if you'd rather not do that, mail the list saying you'll send the data to those who want it.
Keith Bostic Ralph Campbell Mike Karels Marshall Kirk McKusick
for their ongoing work on BSD systems, support, and encouragement.
AboveNet Communications, Inc. Advanced System Products, Inc. Alex Poylisher Alistair Crooks Andrew Brown Atsushi YOKOYAMA Avalon Computer Systems Bay Area Internet Solutions Ben Collver Bill Coldwell Bill Sommerfeld Brad Salai Brains Corporation, Japan Brian Carlstrom Brian McGroarty Canada Connect Corporation Castor Fu Central Iowa (Model) Railroad Charles Conn Charles D. Cranor Charles M. Hannum Chris Legrow Christer O. Andersson Christopher g. Demetriou Christos Zoulas Chuck Silvers Co-operative Research Centre for Enterprise Distributed Curt Sampson Dave Burgess Dave Rand David Brownlee Demon Internet, UK Derek Fellion Digital Equipment Corporation Distributed Processing Technology Douglas J. Trainor Easynet, UK Ed Braaten Edward Richley Eric and Rosemary Spahr Free Hardware Foundation Greg Gingerich Guenther Grau Harald Koerfgen Harry McDonald Heiko W. Rupp Herb Peyerl Hubert Feyrer Innovation Development Enterprises of America Internet Software Consortium James Chacon Jan Joris Vereijken Jason Birnschein Jason Brazile Jason R. Thorpe Jim Wise John Kohl Jonathan P. Kay Jordan K. Hubbard Kenneth Alan Hornstein Kevin Keith Woo Kimmo Suominen Krister Waldfridsson Lex Wennmacher LinuxFest Northwest Luke Mewburn MS Macro System GmbH, Germany Mark Brinicombe Mark S. Thomas Mason Loring Bliss Mattias Karlsson Michael Graff Michael L. Hitch Michael Richardson Michael Thompson Michael W. James Mike Price Neil J. McRae Noah M. Keiserman Norman R. McBride Numerical Aerospace Simulation Facility, NASA Ames Research Oliver Cahagne Perry E. Metzger Petri T. Koistinen Piermont Information Systems Inc. Precedence Technologies Ltd Ralph Campbell Reinoud Zandijk Richard Nelson Rob Windsor Ross Harvey SDF Public Access Unix, Inc. 501(c)(7) Salient Systems Inc. Scott Ellis Scott Kaplan Simon Burge Soren Jacobsen Soren Jorvang Steve Allen Steve Wadlow SunROOT# Project Ted Lemon Ted Spradley Thor Lancelot Simon Tim Law Tom Coulter Toru Nishimura VMC Harald Frank, Germany Warped Communications, Inc. Wasabi Systems Whitecross Database Systems Ltd. William Gnadt Worria Web Hosting
(If you're not on that list and should be, tell us! We probably were not able to get in touch with you, to verify that you wanted to be listed.)
(in alphabetical order)
|The NetBSD core group:|
|Valeriy E. Ushakov||uwe@NetBSD.org|
|The portmasters (and their ports):|
|Frank van der Linden||fvdl@NetBSD.org||amd64|
|Frank van der Linden||fvdl@NetBSD.org||i386|
|Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino||itojun@NetBSD.org||evbsh3|
|Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino||itojun@NetBSD.org||mmeye|
|The NetBSD 2.1 Release Engineering team:|
|Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino||itojun@NetBSD.org|
|Robert V. Baron||rvb@NetBSD.org|
|Mason Loring Bliss||mason@NetBSD.org|
|D'Arcy J.M. Cain||darcy@NetBSD.org|
|Chris G. Demetriou||cgd@NetBSD.org|
|Tracy Di Marco White||gendalia@NetBSD.org|
|Michael van Elst||mlelstv@NetBSD.org|
|Jason R. Fink||jrf@NetBSD.org|
|Simon J. Gerraty||sjg@NetBSD.org|
|Brian C. Grayson||bgrayson@NetBSD.org|
|Jun-ichiro itojun Hagino||itojun@NetBSD.org|
|Charles M. Hannum||mycroft@NetBSD.org|
|Michael L. Hitch||mhitch@NetBSD.org|
|Christian E. Hopps||chopps@NetBSD.org|
|Love Hörnquist Åstrand||lha@NetBSD.org|
|Lonhyn T. Jasinskyj||lonhyn@NetBSD.org|
|Min Sik Kim||minskim@NetBSD.org|
|Daniel de Kok||daniel@NetBSD.org|
|Kentaro A. Kurahone||kurahone@NetBSD.org|
|Johnny C. Lam||jlam@NetBSD.org|
|Martin J. Laubach||mjl@NetBSD.org|
|Frank van der Linden||fvdl@NetBSD.org|
|Jared D. McNeill||jmcneill@NetBSD.org|
|Neil J. McRae||neil@NetBSD.org|
|Juan Romero Pardines||xtraeme@NetBSD.org|
|Julio M. Merino Vidal||jmmv@NetBSD.org|
|Jeremy C. Reed||reed@NetBSD.org|
|Tyler R. Retzlaff||rtr@NetBSD.org|
|Heiko W. Rupp||hwr@NetBSD.org|
|Karl Schilke (rAT)||rat@NetBSD.org|
|Thor Lancelot Simon||tls@NetBSD.org|
|Ian Lance Taylor||ian@NetBSD.org|
|Mike M. Volokhov||mishka@NetBSD.org|
|Brian R. Gaekefirstname.lastname@example.org|
All product names mentioned herein are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
The following notices are required to satisfy the license terms of the software that we have mentioned in this document:
This product includes software developed by the University of
California, Berkeley and its contributors.
This product includes software developed by the University of California, Berkeley and its contributors.
The following people have made contributions of various sorts specifically for the Macintosh port (in alphabetical order):